• Xuyang Liu
  • Jia Ma
  • Ningli Wang
Part of the Advances in Visual Science and Eye Diseases book series (AVSED, volume 2)


The retina is a layer of transparent membrane lining the posterior part of the eyeball wall, whose outer surface is close to the choroid and internal surface is attached to the vitreous.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. & People's Medical Publishing House, PR of China 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xuyang Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jia Ma
    • 3
  • Ningli Wang
    • 4
  1. 1.Xiamen Eye Center of Xiamen UniversityXiamenChina
  2. 2.Shenzhen Eye Hospital, Shenzhen UniversityShenzhenChina
  3. 3.The First Affiliated Hospital, Kunming Medical UniversityKunmingChina
  4. 4.Department of OphthalmologyBeijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical UniversityBeijingChina

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