Advertisement

Biochar and Soil Remediation

  • Bhupendra Koul
  • Pooja Taak
Chapter

Abstract

Biochar is the charred organic matter formed under high heat and low oxygen conditions that occur in natural fires and modern pyrolysis systems. Biochars have various properties for the remediation of polluted soils which include negative charge and large surface area. The use of biochar facilitates nutrient availability, enhance the microbial activity, soil organic matter availability, water holding and enhance crop production of soils. Biochar have excellent potential to adsorb the contaminants from soil solution and make them unavailable to organisms. Various methods come under biochar technique which includes carbon sequestration, nutrient exchange, water holding, adsorption/absorption and oxidation/reduction. Although this method (use of biochar in soil remediation) is simple, robust and suitable for many regions of the world but, its economic estimations and optimization should be taken into consideration for its large-scale implementation. Furthermore, various other public health related concern associated with biochar use should be addressed properly in order to establish biochar as a best alternative to other soil remediation methods, in future.

Keywords

Carbon sequestration Nutrient exchange Water holding Adsorption 

References

  1. Adriano DC (2001) Trace elements in terrestrial environments. Biogeochemistry, bioavailability and risks of metals. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad M, Lee SS, Yang JE, Ro HM, Lee YH, Ok YS (2012) Effects of soil dilution and amendments (mussel shell, cow bone, and biochar) on Pb availability and phytotoxicity in military shooting range soil. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 79:225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad M, Lee SS, Rajapaksha AU, Vithanage M, Zhang M, Cho JS, Lee SE, Ok YS (2013) Trichloroethylene adsorption by pine needle biochars produced at various pyrolysis temperatures. Bioresour Technol 143:615–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anawar HM, Akter F, Solaiman ZM, Strezov V (2015) Biochar: an emerging panacea for remediation of soil contaminants from mining, industry and sewage wastes. Pedosphere 25(5):654–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beckingham B, Ghosh U (2011) Field-scale reduction of PCB bioavailability with activated carbon amendment to river sediments. Environ Sci Technol 45:10567–10574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beesley L, Jiménez EM, Eyles JLG (2010) Effects of biochar and greenwaste compost amendments on mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of inorganic and organic contaminants in a multi-element polluted soil. Environ Pollut 158:2282–2287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beesley L, Moreno-Jiménez E, Gomez-Eyles JL, Harris E, Robinson B, Sizmur T (2011) A review of biochars’ potential role in the remediation, revegetation and restoration of contaminated soils. Environ Pollut 159:3269–3282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beesley L, Inneh OS, Norton GJ, Moreno-Jimenez E, Pardo T, Clemente R, Dawson JJ (2014) Assessing the influence of compost and biochar amendments on the mobility and toxicity of metals and arsenic in a naturally contaminated mine soil. Environ Pollut 186:195–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bernd M, Steffen W, Karsten A, Lübken M (2013) EGU general assembly, potential dual use of biochar for wastewater treatment and soil amelioration. Geophys Res Abstr:15Google Scholar
  10. Brantley KE, Brye KR, Savin MC, Longer DE (2015) Biochar source and application rate effects on soil water retention determined using wetting curves. Open J Soil Sci 5(01):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cao XD, Ma LN, Gao B, Harris W (2009) Dairy-manure derived biochar effectively sorbs lead and atrazine. Environ Sci Technol 43:3285–3291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cao X, Ma L, Liang Y, Gao B, Harris W (2011) Simultaneous immobilization of lead and atrazine in contaminated soils using dairy-manure biochar. Environ Sci Technol 45:4884–4889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen B, Chen Z (2009) Sorption of naphthalene and 1-naphthol by biochars of orange peels with different pyrolytic temperatures. Chemosphere 76:127–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen B, Yuan M, Qian L (2012) Enhanced bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by immobilized bacteria with plant residue and biochar as carriers. J Soil Sediment 12:1350–1359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen SS, Rotaru AE, Shrestha PM, Malvankar NS, Liu FH, Fan W, Nevin KP, Lovley DR (2014) Promoting interspecies electron transfer with biochar. Sci Rep:5019Google Scholar
  16. Cheng CH, Lehmann J, Thies JE, Burton SD, Engelhard MH (2006) Oxidation of black carbon by biotic and abiotic processes. Org Geochem 37:1477–1488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cho YM, Ghosh U, Kennedy AJ, Grossman A, Ray G, Tomaszewski JE, Smithenry DW, Bridges TS, Luthy RG (2009) Field application of activated carbon amendment for in situ stabilization of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine sediment. Environ Sci Technol 43:3815–3823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dong X, Ma L, Gress J (2014) Enhanced Cr(VI) reduction and As (III) oxidation in ice phase: important role of dissolved organic matter from biochar. J Hazard Mater 267:62–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fang GD, Gao J, Liu C, Dionysiou DD, Wang Y, Zhou DM (2014) Key role of persistent free radicals in hydrogen peroxide activation by biochar: implications to organic contaminant degradation. Environ Sci Technol 48:1902–1910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fang GD, Liu C, Gao J, Dionysiou DD, Zhou DM (2015) Manipulation of persistent free radicals in biochar to activate persulfate for contaminant degradation. Environ Sci Technol 49:5645–5653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fellet G, Marmiroli M, Marchiol L (2014) Elements uptake by metal accumulator species grown on mine tailings amended with three types of biochar. Sci Total Environ 468–469:598–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gao X, Cheng HY, Del Valle I, Liu S, Masiello CA, Silberg JJ (2016) Charcoal disrupts soil microbial communication through a combination of signal sorption and hydrolysis. ACS Omega 1:226–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Garcia-Delgado C, Alfaro-Barta I, Eymar E (2015) Combination of biochar amendment and mycoremediation for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons immobilization and biodegradation in creosote-contaminated soil. J Hazard Mater 285:259–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gaskin JW, Steiner C, Harris K, Das KC, Bibens B (2008) Effect of low-temperature pyrolysis conditions on biochar for agricultural use. Trans ASABE 51(6):2061–2069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ghosh U (2007) The role of black carbon in influencing availability of PAHs in sediments. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 13:276–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ghosh U, Luthy RG, Cornelissen G, Werner D, Menzie CA (2011) In situ sorbent amendments, a new direction in contaminated sediment management. Environ Sci Technol 45:1163–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gomez-Eyles JL, Sizmur T, Collins CD, Hodson ME (2011) Effects of biochar and the earthworm Eisenia fetida on the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and potentially toxic elements. Environ Pollut 159:616–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Guo Y, Lai C, Zeng G, Gong J, Su C, Yang C, Xu P (2017) Sequestration of HCHs and DDTs in sediments in Dongting Lake of China with multiwalled carbon nanotubes: implication for in situ sequestration. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 24:7726–7739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hale SE, Hanley K, Lehmann J, Zimmerman AR, Cornelissen G (2011) Effects of chemical, biological, and physical aging as well as soil addition on the sorption of pyrene to activated carbon and biochar. Environ Sci Technol 45:10445–10453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hartley W, Dickinson NM, Riby P, Lepp NW (2009) Arsenic mobility in brownfield soils amended with green waste compost or biochar and planted with Miscanthus. Environ Poll 15(7):2654–2662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Harvey OR, Herbert BE, Rhue RD, Kuo LJ (2011) Metal interactions at the biochar- water interface, energetics and structure-sorption relationships elucidated by flow adsorption microcalorimetry. Environ Sci Technol 45:5550–5556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jeffery S, Bezemer TM, Cornelissen G, Kuyper TW, Lehmann J, Mommer L, Sohi SP, van de Voorde TFJ, Wardle DA, van Groenigen JW (2015) The way forward in biochar research: targeting trade-offs between the potential wins. Glob Change Biol Bioenergy 7:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jeong CY, Wang JJ, Dodla SK, Eberhardt TL, Groom L (2012) Effect of biochar amendment on tylosin adsorption–desorption and transport in two different soils. J Environ Qual 41:1185–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jiang TY, Jiang J, Xu RK, Li Z (2012) Adsorption of Pb(II) on variable charge soils amended with rice-straw derived biochar. Chemosphere 89:249–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jones DL, Jones GE, Murphy DV (2011) Biochar mediated alternations in herbicide breakdown and leaching in soil. Soil Biol Biochem 43:804–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Joseph S, Graber ER, Chia C, Munroe P, Donne S, Thomas T, Nielsen S, Marjo C, Rutlidge H, Pan GX, Li L, Taylor P, Rawal A, Hook J (2013) Shifting paradigms: development of high-efficiency biochar fertilizers based on nanostructures and soluble components. Carbon Manag 4:323–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Karami M, Clemente R, Jimenez EM, Lepp NW, Beesley L (2011) Efficiency of green waste compost and biochar soil amendments for reducing lead and copper mobility and uptake to ryegrass. J Hazard Mater 191:41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Khan S, Chao C, Waqas M, Arp HPH, Zhu YG (2013) Sewage sludge biochar influence upon rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield, metal bioaccumulation and greenhouse gas emissions from acidic paddy soil. Environ Sci Technol 47:8624–8632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kim SC, Hong YK, Oh SJ, Oh SM, Lee SP, Kim DH, Yang JE (2017) Effect of chemical amendments on remediation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) and soil quality improvement in paddy fields. Environ Geochem Health 39(2):345–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kołtowski M, Hilber I, Bucheli TD, Oleszczuk P (2016) Effect of activated carbon and biochars on the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different industrially contaminated soils. Environ Sci Pollut R 23(11):11058–11068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kunhikrishnan A, Seshadri B, Choppala G, Shankar S, Thangarajan R, Bolan N (2016) 3 redox reactions of heavy metal (loid)s in soils and sediments in relation to bioavailability and remediation. In: Trace elements in waterlogged soils and sediments. CRC Press, Baca RotanGoogle Scholar
  42. Lee JW, Kidder M, Evans BR, Paik S, Buchanan AC III, Garten CT, Brown RC (2010) Characterization of biochars produced from Cornstovers for soil amendment. Environ Sci Technol 44:7970–7974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lehmann J (2007) Bio-energy in the black. Front Ecol Environ 5:381–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lehmann J, Joseph S (2008) Biochar for environmental management science and technology. Earthscan, SterlingGoogle Scholar
  45. Lehmann J, Joseph S (eds) (2015) Biochar for environmental management: science, technology and implementation. Routledge, OxonGoogle Scholar
  46. Lehmann J, Gaunt J, Rondon M (2006) Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems-a review. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 11:403–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lehmann J, Rillig MC, Thies J, Masiello CA, Hockaday WC, Crowley D (2011) Biochar effects on soil biota – a review. Soil Biol Biochem 43:1812–1836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Li Y, Zhu Y, Liu X, Wu X, Dong F, Xu J, Zheng Y (2017) Bioavailability assessment of thiacloprid in soil as affected by biochar. Chemosphere 171:185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Liang B, Lehmann J, Solomon D, Kinyangi J, Grossman J, O’Neill B, Skjemstad JO, Thies J, Luizao FJ, Petersen J, Neves EG (2006) Black carbon increases cation exchange capacity in soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:1719–1730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lim JE, Ahmad M, Usman ARA, Lee SS, Jeon WT, Oh SE, Yang JE, Ok YS (2013) Effects of natural and calcined poultry waste on Cd, Pb and As mobility in contaminated soil. Environ Earth Sci 69:11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Liu J, Ding Y, Ma L, Gao G, Wang Y (2017) Combination of biochar and immobilized bacteria in cypermethrin-contaminated soil remediation. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 120:15–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lou L, Wu B, Wang L, Luo L, Xu X, Hou J, Xun B, Hu B, Chen Y (2011) Sorption and ecotoxicity of pentachlorophenol polluted sediment amended with rice-straw derived biochar. Bioresour Technol 102:4036–4041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Luo L, Gu JD (2016) Alteration of extracellular enzyme activity and microbial abundance by biochar addition: implication for carbon sequestration in subtropical mangrove sediment. J Environ Manag 182:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ma Y, Rajkumar M, Zhang C, Freitas H (2016) Beneficial role of bacterial endophytes in heavy metal phytoremediation. J Environ Manag 174:14–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mohan D, Sharma R, Singh VK, Steele P, Pittman CU Jr (2012) Fluoride removal from water using bio-char, a green waste low cost adsorbent, equilibrium uptake and sorption dynamics modeling. Ind Eng Chem Res 51(2):900–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moreno-Jiménez E, Esteban E, Peñalosa JM (2012) The fate of arsenic in soil-plant systems. In: Whitacre DM (ed) Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology. Springer, New York, pp 1–37Google Scholar
  57. Mukherjee A, Lal R (2013) Biochar impacts on soil physical properties and greenhouse gas emissions. Agronomy 3(2):313–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mukherjee A, Zimmerman AR, Harris W (2011) Surface chemistry variations among a series of laboratory-produced biochars. Geoderma 163:247–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mulabagala V, Baaha DA, Egieborb NO, Chen WY (2015) Biochar from biomass: a strategy for carbon dioxide sequestration, soil amendment, power generation, and CO2 utilization. In: Handbook of climate change mitigation and adaptation. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. Nagarajah R, Wong KT, Lee G, Chu KH, Yoon Y, Kim NC, Jang M (2017) Synthesis of a unique nanostructured magnesium oxide coated magnetite cluster composite and its application for the removal of selected heavy metals. Sep Purif Technol 174:290–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Novak JM, Busscher WJ, Watts DW, Amonette JE, Ippolito JA, Lima IM, Gaskin J, Das KC, Steiner C, Ahmedna M, Rehrah D (2012) Biochars impact on soil-moisture storage in an ultisol and two aridisols. Soil Sci 177(5):310–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Oh SY, Son JG, Hur SH, Chung JS, Chiu PC (2013) Black carbon-mediated reduction of 2,4-dinitrotoluene by dithiothreitol. J Environ Qual 42:815–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ok YS, Usman ARA, Lee SS, Abd El-Azeem SAM, Choi B, Hashimoto Y, Yang JE (2011) Effects of rapeseed residue on lead and cadmium availability and uptake by rice plants in heavy metal contaminated paddy soil. Chemosphere 85:677–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pardo T, Martínez-Fernández D, de la Fuente C, Clemente R, Komárek M, Bernal MP (2016) Maghemite nanoparticles and ferrous sulfate for the stimulation of iron plaque formation and arsenic immobilization in Phragmites australis. Environ Pollut 219:296–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Park JH, Choppala GK, Bolan NS, Chung JW, Cuasavathi T (2011a) Biochar reduces the bioavailability and phytotoxicity of heavy metals. Plant Soil 348:439–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Park JH, Lamb D, Paneerselvam P, Choppala G, Bolan N, Chung JW (2011b) Role of organic amendments on enhanced bioremediation of heavy metal(loid) contaminated soils. J Hazard Mater 185:549–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pignatello JJ (2013) Adsorption of dissolved organic compounds by black carbon. In: Molecular environmental soil science (pp 359–385), vol 186. Springer Netherlands Pollution, The Netherlands, pp 195–202Google Scholar
  68. Qambrani NA, Rahman MM, Won S, Shim S, Ra C (2017) Biochar properties and eco-friendly applications for climate change mitigation, waste management, and wastewater treatment: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 79:255–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Qin G, Gong D, Fan MY (2013) Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil by biostimulation amended with biochar. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 85:150–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Qiu Y, Zheng Z, Zhou Z, Sheng GD (2009) Effectiveness and mechanisms of dye adsorption on a straw-based biochar. Bioresour Technol 100:5348–5351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Quilliam RS, Glanville HC, Wade SC, Jones DL (2013) Life in the ‘charosphere’- does biochar in agricultural soil provide a significant habitat for microorganisms? Soil Biol Biochem 65:287–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ratnaike RN (2003) Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity. Postgrad Med J 79:391–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sharma R, Sarswat A, Pittman CU, Mohan D (2017) Cadmium and lead remediation using magnetic and non-magnetic sustainable biosorbents derived from Bauhinia purpurea pods. RSC Adv 7(14):8606–8624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Singh N, Kookana RS (2009) Organo-mineral interactions mask the true sorption potential of biochars in soils. J Environ Sci Health 44:214–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Singh B, Camps-Arbestain M, Lehmann J (2017) Biochar: a guide to analytical methods. CSIRO Publishing, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  76. Sizmur T, Wingate J, Hutchings T, Hodson ME (2011) Lumbricus terrestris L. does not impact on the remediation efficiency of compost and biochar amendments. Pedobiologia 54:S211–S216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sohi S, Loez-Capel E, Krull E, Bol R (2009) Biochar’s roles in soil and climate change, a review of research needs. CSIRO Land and Water Science Report p 64Google Scholar
  78. Stefaniuk M, Oleszczuk P (2016) Addition of biochar to sewage sludge decreases freely dissolved PAHs content and toxicity of sewage sludge-amended soil. Environ Pollut 218:242–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Suda A, Makino T (2016) Functional effects of manganese and iron oxides on the dynamics of trace elements in soils with a special focus on arsenic and cadmium: a review. Geoderma 270:68–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Teixidó M, Pignatello JJ, Beltrán JL, Granados M, Peccia J (2011) Speciation of the ionizable antibiotic sulfamethazine on black carbon (biochar). Environ Sci Technol 45:10020–10027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Uchimiya M, Klasson KT, Wartelle LH, Lima IM (2011b) Influence of soil properties on heavy metal sequestration by biochar amendment: copper sorption isotherms and the release of cations. Chemosphere 82:1431–1437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Uchimiya M, Wartelle LH, Klasson T, Fortier CA, Lima IM (2011c) Influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar property and function as a heavy metal sorbent in soil. J Agric Food Chem 59:2501–2510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Uchimiya M, Bannon DI, Wartelle LH, Lima IM, Klasson KT (2012) Lead retention by broiler litter biochars in small arms range soil: impact of pyrolysis temperature. J Agric Food Chem 60:5035–5044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Usman ARA, Lee SS, Awad YM, Lim KJ, Yang JE, Ok YS (2012) Soil pollution assessment and identification of hyperaccumulating plants in chromate copper arsenate (CCA) contaminated sites, Korea. Chemosphere 87:872–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wang HL, Lin KD, Hou ZN, Richardson B, Gan J (2010) Sorption of the herbicide terbuthylazine in two New Zealand forest soils amended with biosolids and biochars. J Soils Sediments 10:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Woolf D, Amonette JE, Street-Perrott FA, Lehmann J, Joseph S (2010) Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change. Nat Commun 1:Article number, 56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wu H, Lai C, Zeng G (2016) The interactions of composting and biochar and their implications for soil amendment and pollution remediation: a review. Crit Rev Biotechnol 37:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Xu T, Lou L, Luo L, Cao R, Duan D, Chen Y (2012) Effect of bamboo biochar on pentachlorophenol leachability and bioavailability in agricultural soil. Sci Total Environ 414:727–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Xu W, Pignatello JJ, Mitch WA (2015) Reduction of nitroaromatics sorbed to black carbon by direct reaction with sorbed sulfides. Environ Sci Technol 49(6):3419–3426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Yang K, Xing B (2010) Adsorption of organic compounds by carbon nanomaterials in aqueous phase: Polanyi theory and its application. Chem Rev 110(10):5989–6008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Yang YN, Sheng GY, Huang MS (2006) Bioavailability of diuron in soil containing wheat-straw-derived char. Sci Total Environ 354:170–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Yang XB, Ying GG, Peng PA, Wang L, Zhao JL, Zhang LJ, Yuan P, He HP (2010) Influence of biochars on plant uptake and dissipation of two pesticides in an agricultural soil. J Agric Food Chem 58:7915–7921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Yang J, Pan B, Li H, Liao S, Zhang D, Wu M, Xing B (2016a) Degradation of p-nitrophenol on biochars: role of persistent free radicals. Environ Sci Technol 50:694–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Yang X, Liu J, McGrouther K, Huang H, Lu K, Guo X, He L, Lin X, Che L, Ye Z, Wang H (2016b) Effect of biochar on the extractability of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and enzyme activity in soil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:974–984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Yu XY, Ying GG, Kookana RS (2009) Reduced plant uptake of pesticides with biochar additions to soil. Chemosphere 76:665–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yu XY, Mu CL, Gu C, Liu C, Liu XJ (2011) Impact of woodchip biochar amendment on the sorption and dissipation of pesticide acetamiprid in agricultural soils. Chemosphere 85:1284–1289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Yu Z, Qiu W, Wang F, Lei M, Wang D, Song Z (2017) Effects of manganese oxide-modified biochar composites on arsenic speciation and accumulation in an indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar. Chemosphere 168:341–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zhang H, Lin K, Wang H, Gan J (2010) Effect of Pinus radiate derived biochars on soil sorption and desorption of phenanthrene. Environ Pollut 158:2821–2825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Zhang X, Wang H, He L, Lu K, Sarmah A, Li J, Bolan NS, Pei J, Huang H (2013) Using biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:8472–8483.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-1659-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zheng W, Guo M, Chow T, Bennett DN, Rajagopalan N (2010) Sorption properties of greenwaste biochar for two triazine pesticides. J Hazard Mater 181:121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zou Y, Wang X, Khan A, Wang P, Liu Y, Alsaedi A, Hayat T, Wang X (2016) Environmental remediation and application of nanoscale zero-valent iron and its composites for the removal of heavy metal ions: a review. Environ Sci Technol 50(14):7290–7304CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bhupendra Koul
    • 1
  • Pooja Taak
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Bioengineering & BiosciencesLovely Professional UniversityPhagwaraIndia

Personalised recommendations