Medical Image Watermarking in Transform Domain

  • Harsh Vikram SinghEmail author
  • Ankur Rai
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 851)


Telemedicine is a renowned application, where huge amount of medical data ought to be transported secretly over the open network and operate effectively. Therefore, watermarking is a suitable scheme for enhancing security and authentication of medical data, which is essential for diagnosis and can be used as further reference. Digital watermark methods are applied in numerous areas such as owner identification, copyright safety, broadcast monitoring and in handling medical data. This paper incorporates the detailed study of watermarking as well as proposed a robust and secure model for data embedding in medical image. This paper also discussed several telemedicine applications.


Digital watermarking Steganography Transform domain medical images Telemedicine 



The proposed scheme has been tested on a gray scale medical image of size 256×256 accessed and taken from MathWorks DICOM image [26] which are freely available for researchers to access and use.


  1. 1.
    Chao, H.M., Hsu, C.M., MiaouS, G.: An authentication data based method with n, incorporation, and concealment for electronic patient records. IEEE Int. Evid. Knowl. Biomed. 7(2), 46–53 (2002). Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rai, A., Singh, H.V.: SVM based robust watermarking for enhanced medical image security. Multimed. Tools Appl., 1–14 (2017).
  3. 3.
    Rong, Z., Keng, P.: Watermarks medicinal indications for telemedicine. IEEE Commun. Evid. Expert. Med. 6(4), 185–212 (2011). Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rai, A., Singh, H.V.: Machine learning-based robust watermarking technique for medical image transmitted over LTE network. J. Intell. Syst. 27(1), 105–114 (2017). ISSN (Online): 2191-026X; ISSN (Print): 0334-1860,
  5. 5.
    Kumar, B., Singh, H.V., Singh, S.M., Mohan, K.: Protected extended-spectrum embedding for telemedical submissions. Sci. Res. J. Inf. Secur. 2, 91–98 (2011). Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schyndel, R.G., Tirkel, A., Osborne, C.F.: A Digital Watermark, Reports of the 4th Discussion on Image Processing, ICIP-1994, pp. 86–90 (1994)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cox, I., Miller, M., Bloom, J., Fridrich, J., Kalker, T.: Digital Watermarking and Steganography, 2nd edn. ISBN: 978-0123725851Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brancock, E., Meeks, M., Harrmison, R.: Processer discipline subdivision Indigo State University steganography with wavelets: easiness leads to Robustness. Southeast on, IEEE, pp. 588–593, 4–7 (2009)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bouridane, G., Ibrahim, M.K.: Digital video watermarking based on unbalanced multilevel wavelets. IEEE Oper. Signal Dispens. 54(4), 1519–1536 (2006)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cox, I.J., Miller, M.L., Bloom, J.A.: Digital Watermarking, Morgan Kaufmann (2001)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Poldar, V.M., Han, S., Ching, E.: A review of digital video watermarking procedures. In: 4th IEEE Global consultation on Industrial Informatics (INDIN) (2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kakarala, R., Ogunbona, P.O.: Signal investigation using a multidimensional form of the singular values decomposition. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 724–735 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chang, C.C., Tsai, P., Lin, C.C.: SVD-based digital video watermarking model. Pattern Recognit. Lett. 26, 1577–1586 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Singh, A.K., Dave, M., Mohan, A.: Multilevel encrypted text watermarking on medical images using spread-spectrum in DWT domain. Wirel. Pers. Commun. (2015)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Singh, H.V., Gangwar, S.P., Yadav, R.: Study and analysis of wavelet based image compression techniques. Int. J. Eng. Sci. Technol. 4, 1–7 (2012)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Giakoumaki, A., Pavlopoulos, S., Koutsouris, D.: A medical image watermarking scheme based on wavelet transform. In: Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE-EMBS, Cancun, Mexico, pp. 856–859 (2003)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Singh, H.V., Gangwar, S.P., Yadav, R.: Emerging trends in transformed based image compression-a review. Int. J. Inf. Sci. Appl. 2, 591–595 (2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhou, Z., Tang, B., Liu, X.: A block svd based image watermarking method. In: Proceedings of the 6th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, Dalian, China (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Giakoumaki, A., Pavlopoulos, S., Koutsouris, D.: Multiple image watermarking applied to health information management. IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 10(4) (2006)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hyung, K.L., Hee, J.K., Ki, R.K., Jong, K.L.: ROI medical image watermarking using dwt and bit-plane. In: Asia-Pacific Conference, Communications, pp. 512–515 (2005)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Singh, A.K., Kumar, B., Dave, M., Mohan, A.: Multiple watermarking on medical images using selective discrete wavelet transform coefficients. J. Med. Imaging Health Inf. 5, 607–614 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chiang, K.H., Chien, K.C.C., Chang, R.F., Yen, H.Y.: Tamper detection and restoring system for medical images using wavelet-based reversible data embedding. J. Digit. Imaging 21, 77–90 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Eswaraiah, R., Reddy, E.S.: A fragile ROI-based medical image watermarking technique with tamper detection and recovery. In: Fourth International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies (2014)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lai, C.C., Tsai, C.C.: Digital image watermarking using discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition. IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 59(11) (2010)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sharma, A., Singh, A.K., Ghrera, S.P.: Robust and secure multiple watermarking for medical images. Wirel. Person. Commun.; Podilchuk, C.I., Delp, E.J.: Digital watermarking: algorithms and applications. IEEE Ind. Dispens. Mag. 33–46 (2016)Google Scholar
  26. 26.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kamla Nehru Institute of TechnologySultanpurIndia
  2. 2.Assistant Professor, Electronics and Communication EngineeringInvertis UniversityBareillyIndia

Personalised recommendations