The Transformative Potential of Pedagogic Practice

  • Stephanie LederEmail author
Part of the Education for Sustainability book series (EDFSU)


This chapter introduces the concept of transformative pedagogic practice as an intermediate, transitional form of pedagogy which gradually links the conflicting priorities of reproductive and transformative pedagogic practice. It illustrates how educational policies such as Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) pose an opportunity to rethink the structuring elements of pedagogic practice. ESD can be situated in the attempt to change existing patterns and forms of teaching contents and methods toward empowering students to become critical, responsible citizens. Based on the empirical findings (Chaps.  6,  7, and  8), the three central research questions of this book are re-visited: (1) How do academic frameworks in geography education in India relate to ESD principles? (2) How do power relations and cultural values structure pedagogic practice in Indian geography education, and how are these linked to ESD principles? (3) How can ESD principles be interpreted and applied to pedagogic practice in Indian geography education? I reflect upon the practicability of the didactic framework and the transferability of the theoretical and methodological approaches to other contexts. Further, I discuss strategies and perspectives for implementing ESD in Indian geography teaching.


  1. Alexander, R. (2001). Culture and pedagogy. International comparisons in primary education. Singapore: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, R. (2009). The importance of argument in education. London: Institute of Education.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Archer, M. (1995). The neglect of the educational system by Bernstein. In A. R. Sadovnik (Ed.), Knowledge and pedagogy: The sociology of Bernstein (pp. 211–235). Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
  4. Barak, M., Ben–Chaim, D., & Zoller, U. (2007). Purposely teaching for the promotion of higher-order thinking skills: A case of critical thinking. Research in Science Education, 37(4), 353–369. Scholar
  5. Barrett, A. M. (2007). Beyond the polarization of pedagogy: Models of classroom practice in Tanzanian primary schools. Comparative Education, 43(2), 273–294. Scholar
  6. Batra, P. (2005). Voice and agency of teachers: The missing link in National Curriculum Framework 2005. Economic and Political Weekly, 40(1), 4347–4356.Google Scholar
  7. Baumert, J., & Kunter, M. (2006). Stichwort: Professionelle Kompetenz von Lehrkräften. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaften, 50, 469–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Behrends, A., Park, S.-J., & Rottenburg, R. (2014). Travelling models: Introducing an analytical concept to globalisation studies. In A. Behrends, S.-J. Park, & R. Rottenburg (Eds.), Travelling models in African conflict management: Translating technologies of social ordering (pp. 1–40). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  9. Benedict, F. (1999). A systemic approach to sustainable environmental education. Cambridge Journal of Education, 29(3), 433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berndt, C. (2010). Elementarbildung in Indien im Spannungsverhältnis von Macht und Kultur. Eine Mikrostudie in Andhra Pradesh und West Bengalen. Berlin: Logos Verlag.Google Scholar
  11. Bernstein, B. (1975a). Class and pedagogies: Visible and invisible. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  12. Bernstein, B. (1975b). Class, codes and control. Towards a theory of educational transmission. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Bernstein, B. (1990). Class, codes and control. The structuring of pedagogic discourse. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bharati Vidyapeeth Institute of Environment Education and Research. (2002). Study of status of infusion of environmental concepts in school curricula and the effectiveness of its delivery.Google Scholar
  15. Budke, A. (2011). Förderung von Argumentationskompetenzen in aktuellen Geographieschulbüchern. In E. Matthes, Heinze, C. (Ed.), Elementarisierung im Schulbuch (pp. 253–264). Bad Heilbrunn: Verlag Julius Klinkhardt.Google Scholar
  16. Budke, A. (2012a). Argumentationen im Geographieunterricht. Geographie und ihre Didaktik, 1, 23–34.Google Scholar
  17. Budke, A. (2012b). “Ich argumentiere, also verstehe ich.” - Über die Bedeutung von Kommunikation und Argumentation für den Geographieunterricht. In A. Budke (Ed.), Kommunkation und Argumentation (pp. 5–18). Braunschweig: Westermann Verlag. Geo Di 14 (KGF), Alexandras einführungsartikel ausgdruckt.Google Scholar
  18. Budke, A., Schiefele, U., & Uhlenwinkel, A. (2010a). Entwicklung eines Argumentationskompetenzmodells für den Geographieunterricht. Geographie und ihre Didaktik, 3, 180–190.Google Scholar
  19. Budke, A., Schiefele, Ulrich, & Uhlenwinkel, Anke. (2010b). Entwicklung eines Argumentationskompetenzmodells für den Geographieunterricht. Geographie und ihre Didaktik, 3, 180–190.Google Scholar
  20. Chauhan, C. P. S. (1990). Education for all: The Indian scene. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 9(1), 3–14. Scholar
  21. Clarke, P. (2003). Culture and classroom reform: The case of the district primary education project, India. Comparative Education, 39(1), 27–44. Scholar
  22. Crossley, M., & Murby, M. (1994). Textbook provision and the quality of the school curriculum in developing countries: Issues and policy options. Comparative Education, 30(2), 99–114. Scholar
  23. de Haan, G. (2008). Gestaltungskompetenz als Kompetenzkonzept für Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung. In I. Bormann, & G. de Haan (Eds.), Kompetenzen der Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung. Operationalisierung, Messung, Rahmenbedingungen, Befunde. (pp. 23–43). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.,
  24. Eick, C. J., & Reed, C. J. (2002). What makes an inquiry-oriented science teacher? The influence of learning histories on student teacher role identity and practice. Science Education, 86(3), 401–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fetherston, B., & Kelly, R. (2007). Conflict resolution and transformative pedagogy: A grounded theory research project on learning in higher education. Journal of Transformative Education, 5(3), 262–285. Scholar
  26. Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of the oppressed. London: Penguin Books Ltd.Google Scholar
  27. Giroux, H. A. (2004). Critical pedagogy and the postmodern/modern divide: Towards a pedagogy of democratization. Teacher Education Quarterly, 31(1), 31–47.Google Scholar
  28. Goffman, E. (1971). Relations in Public. Microstudies of the Public Order. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  29. Government of India. (2004). Education for all. India Marches Ahead. New Delhi: Ministry of Human Resource Development.Google Scholar
  30. Habermas, J. (1984). The theory of communicative action. Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  31. Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning. A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. Oxon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hellberg-Rode, G., Schrüfer, G., & Hemmer, M. (2014). Brauchen Lehrkräfte für die Umsetzung von Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung (BNE) spezifische professionelle Handlungskompetenzen? Zeitschrift für Geographiedidaktik, 4, 257–281.Google Scholar
  33. Kabeer, N. (1999). Resources, agency, achievements: Reflections on the measurement of women’s empowerment. Development and Change, 30, 435–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kanu, Y. (2005). Tensions and dilemmas of cross-cultural transfer of knowledge: Post-structural/postcolonial reflections on an innovative teacher education in Pakistan. International Journal of Educational Development, 25, 493–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kennedy, M. M. (2006). Knowledge and vision in teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 57(3), 205–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kopperschmidt, J. (2000). Argumentationstheorie. Zur Einführung. Hamburg: Junius.Google Scholar
  37. Kuckuck, M. (2014). Konflikte im Raum - Verständnis von gesellschaftlichen Diskursen durch Argumentation im Geographieunterricht. Münster: MV-Verlag.Google Scholar
  38. Kumar, K. (1988). Origins of India’s “Textbook culture”. Comparative Education Review, 32(4), 452–464. Scholar
  39. Kumar, K. (2005). Political agenda of education. A study of colonialist and nationalist ideas. New Delhi: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  40. Kumar, V. A. (2006). Gramsci and Freire: Bridging the divide in Indian context: An exploratory essay.Google Scholar
  41. Leder, S. (2014). Das indische Bildungssystem im Wandel: Zwischen traditionellen Unterrichtspraktiken und dem Anspruch einer Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung. Geographien Südasiens, 2, 18–21.Google Scholar
  42. Leder, S. (2015). Uncovering schooling ideals and student culture: the case of India. Book Review of Thapan, Meenakshi (Ed.), Ethnographies of schooling in contemporary India. Accessed May 25, 2015.
  43. Leder, S. (2016). Linking women’s empowerment and their resilience. Colombo, Sri Lanka: CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE).Google Scholar
  44. Levin, B., & He, Y. (2008). Investigating the content and sources of teacher candidates’ personal practical theories. Journal of Teacher Education, 59(1), 55–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mandelbaum, D. G. (1975). Society in India. Noida: Popular Prakashan.Google Scholar
  46. Manteaw, O. O. (2012). Education for sustainable development in Africa: The search for pedagogical logic. International Journal of Educational Development, 32(3), 376–383. <Go to ISI> ://000301698300003 Scholar
  47. Marrow, J. (2008). Psychiatry, Modernity and family values: Clenched teeth illness in North India. Chicago: ProQuest.Google Scholar
  48. McElvany, N., Schroeder, S., Baumert, J., Schnotz, W., Horz, H., & Ullrich, M. (2012). Cognitively demanding learning materials with texts ans instructional pictures: Teacher’s diagnostic skills, pedagogical beliefs and motivation. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 27(3), 403–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Merry, S. E. (2006). Transnational human rights and local activism: Mapping the middle. American Anthropologist, 108(1), 38–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Morais, A. M. (2002). Basil Bernstein at the micro level of the classroom. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 23(4), 559–569. Scholar
  51. Mukhopadhyay, R., & Sriprakash, A. (2011a). Global frameworks, local contingencies: Policy translations and education development in India. Compare—A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 41(3), 311–326. Scholar
  52. Mukhopadhyay, R., & Sriprakash, A. (2011b). Global frameworks, local contingencies: Policy translations and education development in India. Compare—A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 41(3), 311–326. Scholar
  53. Mukhopadhyay, R., & Sriprakash, A. (2013). Target-driven reforms: Education for All and the translations of equity and inclusion in India. Journal of Education Policy, 28(3), 306–321. Scholar
  54. National Council of Educational Research and Training. (2009). National Curriculum Framework 2005. Position papers on national focus groups on systemic reform (Vol. II). New Delhi: NCERT.Google Scholar
  55. Neves, I., & Morais, A. M. (2001). Texts and contexts in educational systems: studies of recontextualising spaces. In A. M. Morais, I. Neves, B. Davies, & H. Daniels (Eds.), Towards a sociology of pedagogy. The contribution of Basil Bernstein to research (pp. 223–249). New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  56. Neves, I., Morais, A. M., & Afonso, M. (2004). Teacher training contexts. Study of specific sociological characteristics. In J. Muller, B. Davies, & A. M. Morais (Eds.), Reading Bernstein, researching Bernstein (pp. 168–186). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Pal, Y. (1993). Learning without burden. New Delhi: Ministry of Human Ressource Development, Government of India.Google Scholar
  58. Programm Transfer 21. (2007). Schulprogramm Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung. Grundlagen, Bausteine, Beispiele. Berlin: BLK-Programm Transfer 21.Google Scholar
  59. Punch, S., & Sugden, F. (2013). Work, education and out-migration among children and youth in upland Asia: Changing patterns of labour and ecological knowledge in an era of globalisation. Local Environment, 18(3), 255–270. Scholar
  60. Rinschede, G. (2005). Geographiedidaktik. Paderborn: Schöningh.Google Scholar
  61. Schockemöhle, J. (2011). Regionales Lernen - Kompetenzen fördern und Partizipation stärken. Zur Wirksamkeit des außerschulischen Lernens in der Region. In H. Bayrhuber, U. Harms, B. Muszynski, B. Ralle, M. Rothgangel, L.-H. Schön, et al. (Eds.), Empirische Fundierung in den Fachdidaktiken (pp. 201–216). Münster: Waxmann Verlag.Google Scholar
  62. Schrüfer, G., Hellberg-Rode, G., & Hemmer, M. (2014). Which practical professional competencies should teachers possess in the context of education for sustainable development? Theoretical foundations and research design. In D. Schmeinck, & J. Lidstone (Eds.), Standards and research in geography education—Current trends and international issues (pp. 135–143). Berlin: MBV.Google Scholar
  63. Sen, A. (2005). The argumentative Indian. Noida: Penguin.Google Scholar
  64. Spivak, G. (2008). Can the subaltern speak?. Wien: Turia + Kan.Google Scholar
  65. Sriprakash, A. (2010). Child-centered education and the promise of democratic learning: Pedagogic messages in rural Indian primary schools. International Journal of Educational Development, 30(3), 297–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sriprakash, A. (2011). The contributions of Bernstein’s sociology to education development research. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 32(4), 521–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sriprakash, A. (2012). Pedagogies for development: The politics and practice of child-centred education in India. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sriprakash, A., & Mukhopadhyay, R. (2015). Reflexivity and the politics of knowledge: researchers as ‘brokers’ and ‘translators’ of educational development. Comparative Education, 51(2), 231–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Steiner, R. (2011). Kompetenzorientierte Lehrer/innenbildung für Bildung für Nachhaltige Entwicklung. Kompetenzmodell, Fallstudien und Empfehlungen. Münster: MV-Verlag.Google Scholar
  70. Stöber, G. (2007). Religious identities provoked: The Gilgit ‘Textbook controversy’ and its conflictual context. Internationale Schulbuchforschung, 29, 389–411.Google Scholar
  71. Stöber, G. (2011). Zwischen Wissen, Urteilen und Hndeln - “Konflikt” als Thema im Geographieschulbuch. In C. H. Meyer, R., & Stöber, G. (Eds.), Geographische Bildung (pp. 68–81). Braunschweig: Westermann.Google Scholar
  72. Thapan, M. (2014). Ethnographies of schooling in contemporary India. Delhi: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. The Hindu. (2005, Aug. 7). NCERT draft curriculum framework criticised. Retrieved from
  74. Thompson, P. (2013). Learner-centred education and ‘cultural translation’. International Journal of Educational Development, 33(1), 48–58. Scholar
  75. Tikly, L. (2004). Education and the new imperialism. Comparative Education, 40(2), 173–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tilbury, D. (2011). Education for sustainable development. An expert review of processes and learning. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  77. UNESCO. (2005a). EFA global monitoring report 2005. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  78. UNESCO. (2005b). United Nations decade of education for sustainable development (2005–2014): International implementation scheme, Paris.Google Scholar
  79. UNESCO (2009). UNESCO World Conference on ESD: Bonn Declaration.Google Scholar
  80. UNESCO. (2011). Education for sustainable development. An expert review of processes and learning. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  81. Vavrus, F. (2009). The cultural politics of constructivist pedagogies: Teacher education reform in the United Republic of Tanzania. International Journal of Educational Development, 29(3), 303–311. Scholar
  82. Vavrus, F., & Barrett, L. (2013). Teaching in tension. International pedagogies, national policies, and teachers’ practices in Tanzania. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wohlrapp, H. (2006). Was heißt und zu welchem Ende sollte Argumentationsforschung betrieben werden? In E. Grundler, & R. Vogt (Eds.), Argumentieren in der Schule und Hochschule. Interdisziplinäre Studien (pp. 29–40). Tübingen: Stauffenburg Verlag Brigitte Narrr.Google Scholar
  84. World Bank. (1990). Papua New Guinea, Primary Education Project Completion Report. Washington D.C: World Bank.Google Scholar
  85. World Health Organization (2001). Skills for health. Accessed Mar 10, 2014.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of CologneCologneGermany

Personalised recommendations