Metal-Semiconductor Compound Contacts to Nanowire Transistors

  • Renjie Chen
  • Shadi A. DayehEmail author
Part of the Nanostructure Science and Technology book series (NST)


Compound contacts, formed by thermal annealing of metal-semiconductor nanowires (NWs), are prescribed for lithography-free self-aligned gate processes. Investigations of nanoscale contact metallization have revealed distinctive behaviors from their bulk counterparts, evoking reevaluation of the thermodynamics, kinetics, and resultant phases in alloyed and compound nanoscale contacts. In this chapter, we focus on several critical semiconductor materials of practical importance for devices, e.g., Si, Ge, and III–V NWs, and provide in-depth discussions on the phases of compound contacts, their reaction kinetics, and electrical properties. In Sect. 5.2, we introduce the phase selection rules that lead to multiphase coexistence in low-dimensional NW semiconductor channels. In Sect. 5.3, we discuss the kinetic processes during these solid-state reactions and present a model that can be used to distinguish the rate-limiting steps and to extrapolate the reaction kinetic parameters. In Sect. 5.4, we will introduce electrical properties of NW transistors with these compound contacts and summarize different applications of these contacts including ultrashort channel devices. This entire chapter is organized to demonstrate the promise of compound contacts in nanoscale electronics.


Compound contact Solid-state reaction Silicide Germanide Nickelide to III–V Thermodynamics Kinetics Surface and volume diffusions Interface Electrical properties 



This work was supported by the LDRD program at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the National Science Foundation (DMR-1503595, NSF CAREER Award ECCS-1351980). Several reported works in this chapter were performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), a US Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396), and Sandia National Laboratories (Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000). The authors would like to acknowledge discussions with former members of the Integrated Electronics and Biointerfaces Laboratory, Drs. Xing Dai, Wei Tang, and Binh-Minh Nguyen.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Integrated Electronics and Biointerfaces Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of California San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Materials Science and Engineering ProgramUniversity of California San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  3. 3.Department of NanoEngineeringUniversity of California San DiegoSan DiegoUSA

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