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Arsenic in Rice: An Overview on Stress Implications, Tolerance and Mitigation Strategies

  • Rajib Roychowdhury
  • Md. Hussain Khan
  • Shuvasish Choudhury
Chapter

Abstract

Majority of world’s inhabitants consume rice (Oryza sativa L.) and rice products as staple food and major source of carbohydrate. Rice is a strong accumulator of inorganic arsenic (As). Arsenic enters into rice as a result of extensive use of As-contaminated ground water for irrigation of rice field and several other natural or anthropogenic factors. As is non-biodegradable and remains persistent in the soil for a long period of time, thereby enters into the food chain, exerting hazardous impacts on animal health. In comparison to other cereal crops, rice being an efficient arsenic bio-accumulator, the nutritional quality of rice is severely affected due to As toxicity. It enters into the rice system and accumulates through different root transporters – phosphate transporters for As(V), noduline 26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs) for As (III) and membrane bound aquaporin channels. Researches have been focused to understand and mitigate the impact of arsenic toxicity on rice by evaluating various complex physio-molecular mechanisms associated with the arsenic transport. Screening of the landraces and other genetic stocks for better tolerance and/or resistance nature and incorporation in the breeding strategy, changing in agronomical and cultural practices, biotechnological approaches, etc. appear to be immensely important to understand the impact of the metalloid (like arsenic) in rice. This chapter encompasses the physiological and molecular insight of As transport, accumulation, tolerance and mitigation strategies towards the rice improvement program with a concern of health hazard.

Keywords

Arsenic Rice Transporters Metalloid stress Health hazard Nutrient management Transgenics 

Abbreviations

AM

Arbuscular mycorrhiza

AR

Arsenate reductase

As

Arsenic

BS

Bundle sheath

CS

Casperian strip

DMA

Dimethylarsinic acid

GSH

Reduced glutathione

GSSG

Oxidised glutathione

Lsi

Silicon and/or arsenic transporter

MMA

Monomethylarsonic acid

MT

Metallothionine

NIP

Noduline 26 like intrinsic protein

NRAMP

Natural resistance associated macrophage protein

PC

Phytochelatins

PCC

Phloem companion cell

PCS

Phytochelatin synthase

PSR

Phosphate starvation response

PT

Phosphate transporter

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

TMA

Trimethylarsine

XTC

Xylem transfer cell

Notes

Acknowledgement

This work is the outcome of the part of Extramural Research Project vide 38(1430)/17/EMR-II supported by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, India.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajib Roychowdhury
    • 1
    • 2
  • Md. Hussain Khan
    • 3
  • Shuvasish Choudhury
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Stress Biology and Metabolomics Laboratory, Central Instrumentation Laboratory (CIL)Assam Central UniversitySilcharIndia
  2. 2.Department of Vegetables and Field Crops, Institute of Plant SciencesAgricultural Research Organization (ARO) – Volcani CenterRishon LeZionIsrael
  3. 3.Department of BotanyRamakrishna MahavidyalayaKailashar, UnakotiIndia

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