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Role of Phytohormones in Enhancing Antioxidant Defense in Plants Exposed to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity

  • Duaa Ahmad Khan
  • Zeeshan Ali
  • Sahar Iftikhar
  • Deeba Amraiz
  • Najam-us-Sahar Sadaf Zaidi
  • Alvina Gul
  • Mustafeez Mujtaba Babar
Chapter

Abstract

A number of factors adversely affect the plant health and, ultimately, the agricultural yield. Various abiotic stress factors including temperature variation, flooding, salinity, drought, nutrient depletion and environmental toxicities cause significant losses annually. Among these, metal and metalloid toxicity results in physiological, morphological and metabolic alteration in plant body. Mediated through various mechanisms, these ions result in early cell death. The oxidative stress, owing to the production of various reactive oxygen species is the most important contributing agent. Phytohormones produced by plants help to counteract the effects of these stress factors. Through a number of enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways, they regulate the antioxidant pathways in the plant body. The study of these phytohormones can help in developing an understanding of the metabolic processes and can help in providing important checkpoints for employing interventional strategies to enhance the antioxidant potential of metal-stressed plants. This chapter summarizes the role of various phytohormones in the antioxidant response to metal stress. Moreover, various mechanisms that are employed by the plants to enhance their antioxidant potential have been discussed. Towards the end, the regulation of phytohormone-mediated antioxidation has been provided.

Keywords

Metal toxicity Phytohormones Antioxidant regulation Oxidative stress Biotic stress response 

Abbreviations

2,4-D

2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

24-EpiBL

24-epibrassinolide

28-HomoBL

28-homobrassinolide

2-CEPA

2-chlorethylphosphonic acid

ABA

Abscisic acid

ABC

ATP binding cassette

ACC

1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid

ACO

1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase

ADC

Arginine decarboxylase

AFB

Auxin signaling F-box

Al

Aluminum

APOX

Ascorbate peroxidase

APX

Ascorbate peroxidase

Ar

Arsenic

ASA/ASC

Ascorbic acid

AtHSD gene

Arabidopsis thaliana hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene

AUX1

Auxin resistant 1

B

Boron

BR

Brassinosteroids

CaCA

Ca2+/cation antiporter

CAT

Catalase

Cd

Cadmium

CDF

Cation diffusion facilitator

CDPK

Calcium-dependent protein kinase

CK

Cytokinin

Cr

Chromium

CTR

Copper transporters family

Cu

Copper

DHA

Dehydro ascorbic acid

DHAR

Dehydroascorbate reductase

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

EIN2

Ethylene insensitive 2

ERFs

Ethylene response factors

ET

Ethylene

FAD

Flavin adenine dinucleotide

Fe

Iron

GA

Gibberellins

GH3

Glycoside hydrolase

GOPX

Guaiacol peroxidase

GPX

Glutathione peroxidase

GR

Glutathione reductase

GSH

Glutathione

GSSG

Glutathione disulfide

GST

Glutathione-S-transferase

Hg

Mercury

His

Histidine

HMA

Heavy metal ATPase

HSPs

Heat shock proteins

IAA

Indole-3-acetic acid

IBA

Indole butyric acid

Irt

Iron regulated transporter

JA

Jasmonic acid

LEA

Late embryogenesis abundant

LPO

Lipid peroxidation

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MDHA

Monodehydro ascorbate

MDHAR

Monodehydroascorbate reductase

MeJA

Methyl jasmonate

Mn

Manganese

MT

Metallothioneins

NAA

Naphthalene acetic acid

NADPH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

Ni

Nickel

NO

Nitric oxide

NRAMP

Natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins

ODC

Ornithine decarboxylase

OsGSK1

Oryza sativa glycogen synthase kinase3-like gene 1

PA

Polyamines

Pb

Lead

PC

Phytochelatin

PEPC

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase

PEX

Peroxisome

PGPR

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

PIN

Pin-formed

PS-II

Photo system 2

Put

Putrescine

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RuBisCO

Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

SA

Salicylic acid

SAMDC

S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase

SAPs

Stress associated proteins

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

Spd

Spermidine

SPDS

Spermidine synthase

Spm

Spermine

Th

Thallium

TIR1

Transport inhibitor response 1

Tpx1

Thioredoxin peroxidase

ZIP

Zrt-and irt-like protein (ZIP)

Zn

Zinc

Zrt

Zinc-regulated transporter

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Duaa Ahmad Khan
    • 1
  • Zeeshan Ali
    • 1
  • Sahar Iftikhar
    • 1
  • Deeba Amraiz
    • 2
  • Najam-us-Sahar Sadaf Zaidi
    • 3
  • Alvina Gul
    • 3
  • Mustafeez Mujtaba Babar
    • 1
  1. 1.Shifa College of Pharmaceutical SciencesShifa Tameer-e-Millat UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.National University of Medical SciencesRawalpindiPakistan
  3. 3.Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied BiosciencesNational University of Sciences and TechnologyIslamabadPakistan

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