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Role of Micro-organisms in Modulating Antioxidant Defence in Plants Exposed to Metal Toxicity

  • Kanika Khanna
  • Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli
  • Shagun Bali
  • Parminder Kaur
  • Poonam Saini
  • Palak Bakshi
  • Puja Ohri
  • Bilal Ahmad Mir
  • Renu Bhardwaj
Chapter

Abstract

Micro-organisms play diverse role rhizosphere where they interact and develop mutualistic associations. They stimulate plant growth by synthesising various metabolites and phytohormones like auxins (IAA), cytokinins and gibberellins etc. They also help to alleviate the oxidative stress induced by heavy metals by lowering the free radical formation and activation of different antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes (SOD, APOX, CAT, GR, POD, MDHAR, GPX etc.). Furthermore, they modulate the activity of ROS- scavenging pathways and maintain ROS homeostasis thereby, averts ROS- initiated inhibition of plant cellular processes and enhance their survival under metal stress. Moreover, they elevate redox state of plants by increasing the activities of ascorbate-glutathione recycling enzymes under metal stress. They also alter the levels of organic acids, phenols, flavonoids and siderophores which act as a part of metal detoxification and antioxidative defence system in metal-stressed plants. Plant- microbe symbiosis enables accumulation of stress-responsive phytohormones and trigger antioxidative defence responsive genes which enhance overall survival of plants under metal stress.

Keywords

Oxidative damage Reactive oxygen species Antioxidative defense Phenolic compounds Siderophore production Organic acid production 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kanika Khanna
    • 1
  • Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli
    • 2
  • Shagun Bali
    • 2
  • Parminder Kaur
    • 2
  • Poonam Saini
    • 1
  • Palak Bakshi
    • 1
  • Puja Ohri
    • 3
  • Bilal Ahmad Mir
    • 4
  • Renu Bhardwaj
    • 2
  1. 1.Plant Stress Physiology Lab, Department of Botanical and Environmental SciencesGuru Nanak Dev UniversityAmritsarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Botanical and Environmental SciencesGuru Nanak Dev UniversityAmritsarIndia
  3. 3.Department of Zoological SciencesGuru Nanak Dev UniversityAmritsarIndia
  4. 4.Department of Botany, School of Life SciencesSatellite Campus Kargil, University of KashmirKargilIndia

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