Dermatological Applications of EPR: Skin-Deep or In-Depth?

  • Martyna Krzykawska-Serda
  • Dominika Michalczyk-Wetula
  • Przemysław M. PłonkaEmail author


The skin is often referred to as the biggest uniform human body organ, and also as the “brain outside,” exposed not only, like the lung epithelium, to the atmospheric air but to other constituents of the open environment including changeable temperature and solar irradiation. The importance of what happens in the skin is therefore not to be overestimated for general condition of the whole organism. Techniques of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR; called also electron spin resonance, ESR) spectroscopy and imaging belong to the important experimental and diagnostic approaches in dermatology, but the size and shape of skin often make technical problems. The present chapter will cover the basic and clinical applications of EPR to study the skin (including skin tumors) and hair. As the numerous available review papers usually describe the specificity of the EPR-related methods for dermatologists, we decided to cover also some basic aspects of dermatology, to make the chapter more useful also to the specialists in EPR theory and instrumentation. A particular emphasis will be put on the most recent discoveries and innovations, to show that the apparently purely dermatological aspects of such investigations reveal also deeper, systemic implications.


Dermatology Dosimetry Drug carriers EPR ESR Free radicals Hair Melanin Nanoparticles Oximetry Skin 



The Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Biotechnology of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków is a partner of the Leading National Research Center (KNOW) supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. The paper was partially supported from this fund (PMP, grant KNOW 35p/10/2015). The support to MKS from grant PRELUDIUMII NSC, 2011/03/N/NZ4/02019 is also acknowledged.

Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martyna Krzykawska-Serda
    • 1
  • Dominika Michalczyk-Wetula
    • 1
  • Przemysław M. Płonka
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and BiotechnologyJagiellonian UniversityKrakówPoland

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