Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) of High Concentration Zinc-Contaminated Soils Using Soda Residue

  • Fusheng Zha
  • Jingjing Liu
  • Yongfeng Deng
  • Long XuEmail author
  • Xiangyang Wang
  • Xiuhong Yang
Conference paper
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


Solidification/stabilization (S/S) has been considered as one of the most effective techniques for remediation of the heavy metal-contaminated sites. Among various binders adopted in S/S, soda residue is extensively accepted and investigated due to its strong adsorptive capacity for heavy metal ions. In this paper, the engineering properties of the high concentration zinc-contaminated soil solidified/stabilized by soda residue blended with cement have been investigated. Test results showed that the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of the treated specimen increased with the increase of the soda residue content and the curing time. A higher UCS can be obtained for specimens with lower zinc concentration. In toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test, the concentration of the leached heavy metal ions decreased with the increase of the curing time. Results of UCS and TCLP illustrated that cement-soda residue stabilized zinc-contaminated soil satisfied the standard of strength and leachability when the mass ratio of cement to soda residue was 2 to 8. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis obviously showed the formation of the hydrated products such as CSH, CAH and Aft. Zinc ions can be immobilized by precipitating as Zn(OH)2 or incorporating with hydrates to form CaZn2(OH)6H2O.


Stabilization/solidification Zinc-contaminated soil Soda residue Unconfined compressive strength Leachability 


  1. 1.
    Kogbara RB, Al-Tabbaa A, Yi YL, Stegemann JA (2013) Cement-fly ash stabilization/solidification of contaminated soil: performance properties and initiation of operating envelopes. Appl Geochem 33:64–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chen QY, Tyrer M, Hills CD, Yang XM, Carey P (2009) Immobilization of heavy metal in cement-based solidification/stabilization: a review. Waste Manag 29:390–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jin F, Al-Tabbaa A (2014) Evaluation of novel reactive MgO activated slag binder for the immobilization of lead and zinc. Chemosphere 117:285–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gu K, Jin F, Al-Tabbaa A, Shi B, Liu C, Gao L (2015) Incorporation of reactive magnesia and quicklime in sustainable binders for soil stabilization. Eng Geol 195:53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wu ZL, Deng YF, Liu SY, Liu QW, Chen YG, Zha FS (2016) Strength and micro-structure evolution of compacted soils modified by admixtures of cement and metakaolin. Appl Clay Sci 127–128:44–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li JS, Poon CS (2017) Innovative solidification/stabilization of lead contaminated soil using incineration sewage sludge ash. Chemosphere 173:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jin CJ, Tian GB, Cao X, She ZL, Zheng JG (2008) Adsorption characteristics of zinc ions on alkaline sludge. Chin J Environ Eng 2(9):1218–1222Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yan YB, Sun XY, Ma FB, Li JS, Shen JY, Han WQ, Liu XD, Wang LJ (2014) Removal of phosphate from wastewater using alkaline residue. J Environ Sci 26:970–980Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang Y, Cao J, Dong Y, Chen BH, Zhang Y, Zong R (2013) Experimental investigation of influence of temperature on microstructure of alkaline residue. J Lanzhou Univ Technol 39(5):126–129Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang WS (2003) Experimental study on the engineering properties and strength mechanism of soda residue. Thesis, Tianjin University, TianjinGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Komonweeraket K, Cetin B, Aydilek AH, Benson CH, Edil TB (2015) Effects of pH on the leaching mechanisms of elements from fly ash mixed soils. Fuel 140:788–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li XD, Poon CS, Sun H, Lo IMC, Kirk DW (2001) Heavy metal speciation and leaching behaviors in cement based solidified/stabilized waste materials. J Hazard Mater A82:215–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Malliou O, Katsioti M, Georgiadis A, Katsiri A (2007) Properties of stabilized/solidified admixtures of cement and sewage sludge. Cem Concr Compos 29:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hale B, Evans L, Lambert R (2012) Effects of cement or lime on Cd Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn mobility in field-contaminated and aged soils. J Hazard Mater 199–200:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fusheng Zha
    • 1
  • Jingjing Liu
    • 1
  • Yongfeng Deng
    • 2
  • Long Xu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Xiangyang Wang
    • 1
  • Xiuhong Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.Hefei University of TechnologyHefeiChina
  2. 2.Southeast UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations