Study on Dynamic Characteristics of Over-Wet Loess Modified by Red Mud Under Cyclic Loading

  • Ruifeng Chen
  • Xiaoqiang Dong
  • Gaoyuan Tian
Conference paper
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


A great amount of red mud waste in the world urgently need to be solved. In order to explore the effect of red mud modified over-wet loess, the cyclic loading test was carried out by the GDS dynamic three axis system. The dynamic stress-strain relations, accumulated plastic strain, dynamic modulus and damping ratio of the modified soil are analyzed, which also are compared with unmodified loess. The results show that the addition of red mud can effectively ameliorate over-wet loess, improving the bearing capacity and the ability to resist deformation. The cumulative plastic strain increases with the increase of the dynamic stress, yet decreases with the increase of confining pressure. It shows different development trends with the increase of dynamic strain: stable type and failure type, and the critical dynamic stress of the modified soil is higher than the measured maximum dynamic stress of subgrade. With the dynamic strain increases, the dynamic elastic modulus increases first and then decreases, but damping ratio slightly decreases first and then increases. The dynamic modulus of modified soil is modified about 4 times than that of loess but damping ratio is lower. The modified soil has no leaching toxicity and good environmental effect. The research results provide a theoretical basis for red mud used in the improvement of over-wet soil or soft foundation.


Red mud Over-wet loess Cumulative plastic strain Dynamic modulus Leaching toxicity 



This study was financially supported by Scientific Research Foundation of Shanxi Province of China (201701D121121) and Shanxi Scholarship Council of China (2017-039).


  1. 1.
    Chen J (2012) Influence of water on Subgrade and protection measures. Chang’an UniversityGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Du Y, Liu S, Qin X et al (2014) Field test study on road performance of stabilized wet clay roadbed filled with carbide slag. J Southeast Univ (Nat Sci Edn) 44(2):375–380Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ding J, Zhang S, Hong Z et al (2010) Experimental study on solidification of dredged sludge with high water content by cement and phosphogypsum. Rock Soil Mech 09:2817–2822Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhang T, Ding J, Deng D (2009) Study on the change law of water content of dredged sludge with high water content solidified by lime. Rock Soil Mech 30(9):2775–2778Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhao C, Miao H (1998) Construction technology of high water content soil subgrade solidified by pulverized lime. J Shijiazhuang Railw Univ S1:56–59Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liu DY, Wu CS (2012) Stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud research progress. Materials 5(7):1232–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen C, Hu Z, Xie D (2004) Research on the relationship between deformation-strength property and structure of red mud. Rock Soil Mech 25(12):1862–1866Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ujaczki E, Zimmermann Y, Gasser C et al (2017) Red mud as secondary source for critical raw materials – extraction study. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 92:2835–2844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tsakiridis PE, Agatzini-Leonardou S, Oustadakis P (2004) Red mud addition in the raw meal for the production of Portland cement clinker. J Hazard Mater 116(1–2):103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gupta VK, Gupta M, Sharma S (2001) Process development for the removal of lead and chromium from aqueous solutions using red mud–an aluminium industry waste. Water Res 35(5):1125–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Milenković A, Smičiklas I, Bundaleski N et al (2016) The role of different minerals from red mud assemblage in Co(II) sorption mechanism. Colloids Surf Physicochem Eng Asp 508:8–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang P-S (2005) Mineralogical characteristics and fast curing mechanism of red mud from sintering process Ferr Met Eng 57(03):115–119Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mymrin V, Alekseev K, Fortini OM et al (2017) Environmentally clean materials from hazardous red mud, ground cooled ferrous slag and lime production waste. J Clean Prod 161:376–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sutar H, Murmu R, Roy D et al (2016) Effect of red mud (RM) reinforcement on physio-chemical characteristics of ordinary portland slag cement (OPSC) mortar. Adv Mater Phys Chem 6(8):231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Seed HB, Chan CK (1961) Effect of duration of stress application on soil deformation under repeated loading. In: Proceedings of the 5th international congress on soil mechanics and foundations, pp 341–345. Dunod, PairsGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shi F, Liu J, Fang JH et al (2013) Dynamic stress measurement of Highway Subgrade in seasonally frozen soil. China J Highw Transp 26(5):15–20Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chen L (2010) Study on mechanism and engineering characteristics of cement stabilized soil contaminated by heavy metals. Southeast University, NanjingGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruifeng Chen
    • 1
  • Xiaoqiang Dong
    • 1
  • Gaoyuan Tian
    • 1
  1. 1.Taiyuan University of TechnologyTaiyuanChina

Personalised recommendations