Stabilization/Solidification of Ladle Slag in Cement-stabilized Clay

  • Bo Xu
  • Kimberly Sze Ern Yeap
  • Yaolin YiEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


Ladle furnace basic slag (ladle slag) is a by-product generated from the secondary steelmaking industry. The subsequent disposal of this slag in Singapore is problematic due to its quantity and impact on the environment. A possible solution is to incorporate the ladle slag with deep cement mixing for soft ground improvement. Hence, this study investigates the stabilization/solidification of the ladle slag in the cement-stabilized clay, focusing on the influence of ladle slag on mechanical properties of cement-stabilized soft clay and the leaching of heavy metals. A range of laboratory tests were conducted, including unconfined compressive strength (UCS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and leaching tests. The results showed the addition of ladle slag slightly reduced the UCS of cement-stabilized clays at 14 days, but did not affect or even slightly increased the UCS at and after 28 days if the ladle slag/cement ratio was within 0.15. The leaching of heavy metal elements all meet the requirement of the non-hazardous waste standard. This implies the potential incorporation of ladle slag into soft clay stabilization as a sustainable waste management strategy.


Ladle slag Soft clay stabilization Unconfined compressive strength Microstructure 



The authors appreciate the support from Singapore MOE AcRF Tier 1 grant (RG184/17) and NTU URECA programme (CEE17065).


  1. 1.
    Ho P (2005) Greening industries in newly industrializing countries: Asian-style leapfrogging. Int J Environ Sustain Dev 4(3):209–226MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    Serjun VZ, Mirti B, Mladenovi A (2013) Evaluation of ladle slag as a potential material for building and civil engineering. Mater Technol 47(5):543–550Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sun DD, Tay JH, Cheong HK et al (2001) Recovery of heavy metals and stabilization of spent hydrotreating catalyst using a glass–ceramic matrix. J Hazard Mater 87(1):213–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tan TS, Goh TL, Yong KY (2002) Properties of Singapore marine clays improved by cement mixing. Geotech Test J 25(4):422–433Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yong K. Y., Karunaratne G. P., Lee S. L.: Recent developments in soft clay engineering in Singapore, Kansai International Geotech Forum, Japan, pp. 1–8 (1990)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ataie FF, Juenger MCG, Taylor-Lange SC et al (2015) Comparison of the retarding mechanisms of zinc oxide and sucrose on cement hydration and interactions with supplementary cementitious materials. Cem Concr Res 72:128–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil and Environmental EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations