Discussion and Conclusion

  • Jan Hendrick Nel
  • Bennie Linde


This chapter discusses and concludes the findings of the systematic review and narrative synthesis of the literature to address the low levels of engagement in a unionised environment. This chapter concludes that the replacement of the traditional adversarial approach with new management strategies has the most potential of raising engagement levels in a unionised context. The biggest challenge for organisations is to achieve sustainable employee engagement in a unionised environment due to the different expectations unionised and non-unionised employees have from employers. Our framework contributes to the engagement theory and practice in that it is the first conceptual framework to illustrate how antecedents, specifically applicable to a unionised environment, can foster and enhance employee engagement levels in a unionised environment.


Conclusions Contribution Discussion Raising engagement levels Traditional adversarial approach 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Hendrick Nel
    • 1
  • Bennie Linde
    • 2
  1. 1.People and Business SolutionsBDO South AfricaJohannesburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.Economic and Management FacultyNorth-West UniversityPotchefstroomSouth Africa

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