Advertisement

Tea Plants and Air Pollutants

  • Lorenzo Cotrozzi
  • Cristina Nali
  • Elisa Pellegrini
  • Giacomo Lorenzini
Chapter

Abstract

The major tea-growing regions of the world are located in Asia, where tea contributes substantially to their economy. It is known how the rapid development of the economy, twinned to global change, has created in many districts of industrialized countries critical levels of air pollution. Abiotic stresses may affect plant growth, quality, and distribution. This is particularly important for specialty crops such as tea, where functional quality is determined by phytonutrients, secondary metabolites, and bioactive components that play a pivotal role in plant defense and acclimation/adaptation/resilience to environmental stresses. Stress conditions such as drought, heat, light extremes, salinity, and toxic metals in the substrate have been the subject of intense researches, and the sensitivity of tea plants to these constraints has been tested by the scientific community through field and controlled experiments. Tea plants present high leaf surface areas, and exchange with atmosphere is elevated. However, little is known about the way air pollution affects tea responses and how this species is able to counteract this insult. In this chapter, the existing literature reporting the effects of air pollution on the tea plant is reviewed with the aim to examine physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses found in this species. To the best of our knowledge, only the impacts of few air pollutants have been somehow assessed on tea plants, and several responses are still poorly understood. Thus, more research on the impact of air pollution on tea plants is needed. This is of pivotal importance also because commercial tea samples may contain significant quantities of contaminants, which may be transferred to the consumer. No doubt that health national/international bodies should pay more attention to this issue and adopt safe standards of pollution content in the commodities of one of the world’s most popular beverages, highly appreciated also by young people because of its pleasant aroma, flavor, and potential positive effect on mood.

Keywords

Air pollutants Camellia sinensis Fluorides Oxidative stress Ozone Sulfur dioxide 

References

  1. Abas N, Khan N (2014) Carbon conundrum, climate change, CO2 capture and consumptions. J CO2 Util 8:39–48Google Scholar
  2. Ahmed S, Stepp JR, Orians C et al (2014) Effects of extreme climate events on tea (Camellia sinensis) functional quality validate indigenous farmer knowledge and sensory preferences in tropical China. PLoS One 9:e109126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ainsworth EA, Long SP (2005) What have we learned from 15 years of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)? A meta-analytic review of the responses of photosynthesis, canopy properties and plant production to rising CO2. New Phytol 165:351–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alvarez-Ayuso E, Gimenes A, Ballesteros JC (2011) Fluoride accumulation by plants grown in acid soils amended with flue gas desulphurisation gypsum. J Hazard Mater 192:1659–1666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bell JNB, Treshow M (2002) Air pollution and plant life. Wiley, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Brougham KM, Roberts SR, Davison AW et al (2013) The impact of aluminium smelter shut-down on the concentration of fluoride in vegetation and soils. Environ Pollut 178:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cai H, Zhu X, Peng C et al (2016) Critical factors determining fluoride concentration in tea leaves produced from Anhui province, China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 131:14–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chan L, Mehra A, Saikat S et al (2013) Human exposure assessment of fluoride from tea (Camellia sinensis L.): a UK based issue? Food Res Int 51:564–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen ZM, Wan HB (1997) Degradation of pesticides on plant surfaces and its prediction – a case study on tea plant. Environ Monit Assess 44:303–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davison A, Blakemore J (1976) Factors determining fluoride accumulation in forage. In: Mansfield T (ed) Effects of air pollution on plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 17–30Google Scholar
  11. De Costa WAJM, Mohotti AJ, Wijeratne MA (2007) Ecophysiology of tea. Braz J Plant Physiol 19:299–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Drake BG, Gonzalez-Meler MA, Long SP (1997) More efficient plants: a consequence of rising atmospheric CO2? Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 48:609–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eungwanichayapant P, Popluechai S (2009) Accumulation of catechins in tea in relation to accumulation of mRNA genes involved in catechin biosynthesis. Plant Physiol Biochem 47:94–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fernandez-Caceres PL, Martín MJ, Pablos F et al (2001) Differentiation of tea (Camellia sinensis) varieties and their geographical origin according to their metal content. J Agric Food Chem 49:4775–4779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fornasiero RB (2001) Phytotoxic effects of fluorides. Plant Sci 161:979–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fung KF, Zhang ZQ, Wong JWC et al (1999) Fluoride contents in tea and soil from tea plantations and the release of fluoride into tea liquor during infusion. Environ Pollut 104:197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gao HJ, Zhao Q, Zhang XC et al (2014) Localization of fluoride and aluminum in subcellular fractions of tea leaves and roots. J Agric Food Chem 62:2313–2319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. García MG, Borghino L (2015) Fluoride in the context of the environment. In: Preedy WR (ed) Fluorine: chemistry, analysis, function and effects. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp 3–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gottardini E, Cristofori A, Cristofolini F et al (2014) Chlorophyll-related indicators are linked to visible ozone symptoms: evidence from a field study on native Viburnum lantana L. plants in northern Italy. Ecol Indic 39:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Haagen-Smit AJ, Darley EF, Zaitlin M et al (1952) Investigation on injury to plants from air pollution in the Los Angeles area. Plant Physiol 27:18–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hallanger Johnson JE, Kearns AE, Doran PM et al (2007) F-related bone disease associated with habitual tea consumption. Mayo Clin Proc 82:719–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hendriks C, Forsell N, Kiesewetter G et al (2016) Ozone concentrations and damage for realistic future European climate and air quality scenarios. Atmos Environ 144:208–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hu X-C, Yin A (2013) Growth responses of five Camellia species to air pollution from sulfur dioxide and fluoride. Int Camellia J 45:94–97Google Scholar
  24. IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. IPCC, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  25. Izuora K, Twombly JG, Whitford GM et al (2011) Skeletal fluorosis from brewed tea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:2318–2324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jacobson JJ, Weinstein LH, McCune DC et al (1969) The accumulation of fluorine by plants. J Air Pollut Control Assoc 16:412–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kavanagh D, Renehan JJ (1998) Fluoride in tea - its dental significance: a review. Ir Dent Assoc 44:100–105Google Scholar
  28. Lai JA, Yang WC, Hsia JY (2001) An assessment of genetic relationships in cultivated tea clones and native wild tea in Taiwan using RAPD and ISSR markers. Bot Bull Acad Sin 42:93–100Google Scholar
  29. Li C, Zheng Y, Zhou J et al (2011) Changes of leaf antioxidant system, photosynthesis and ultrastructure in tea plant under the stress of fluorine. Biol Plantarum 55:563–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li P, Calatayud V, Gao F et al (2016) Differences in ozone sensitivity among woody species are related to leaf morphology and antioxidant levels. Tree Physiol 36:1105–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lin D, Zhu L, He W et al (2006) Tea plant uptake and translocation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water and around air. J Agric Food Chem 54:3658–3662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Liu T-X, Wang J, Y-n C (2009) Effects of ozone treatments on the aromatic characteristic of puer tea. Modern Food Sci Tech 25:944–948Google Scholar
  33. Liu L, Zhou LX, Zhang XC et al (2014) Background variations of atmospheric CO2 and carbon-stable isotopes at Waliguan and Shangdlanzi stations in China. J Geophys Res Atmos 119:5602–5612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Liu ZW, Wu ZJ, Li XH et al (2016) Identification, classification, and expression profiles of heat shock transcription factors in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) under temperature stress. Gene 576:52–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Liu G-F, Han Z-X, Feng L et al (2017) Metabolic flux redirection and transcriptomic reprogramming in the albino tea cultivar ‘Yu-Jin-Xiang’ with emphasis on catechin production. Sci Rep 7:45062.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep45062 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Lobell DB, Schlenker W, Costa-Roberts J (2011) Climate trends and global crop production since 1980. Science 333:616–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Long L, Hullan Y (2012) Effect of sulfur dioxide on ROS production, gene expression and antioxidant enzyme activity in Arabidopsis plants. J Plant Physiol 58:46–53Google Scholar
  38. Long SP, Naidu SL (2002) Effects of oxidants at the biochemical, cell and physiological levels, with particular reference to ozone. In: Bell JNB, Treshow M (eds) Air pollution and plant life. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, pp 69–88Google Scholar
  39. Lorenzini G, Nali C, Pellegrini E (2014a) Summer heat waves, agriculture, forestry and related issues: an introduction. Agrochimica 58(Special Issue):3–19Google Scholar
  40. Lorenzini G, Pellegrini E, Campanella A et al (2014b) It’s not just the heat and the drought: the role of ozone air pollution in the 2012 heat wave. Agrochimica 58(Special Issue):40–52Google Scholar
  41. Lu Y, Guo WF, Yang XQ (2004) Fluoride content in tea and its relationship with tea quality. J Agric Food Chem 52:4472–4476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Malir F, Ostry V, Pfohl-Leszkowicz A et al (2014) Transfer of ochratoxin A into tea and coffee beverages. Toxins 6:3438–3453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mohotti AJ (1998) Effect of irradiance and N nutrition on photosynthesis of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) in comparison with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). PhD dissertation, University of ReadingGoogle Scholar
  44. Pellegrini E, Lorenzini G, Nali C (2007) The 2003 European heat wave: which role for ozone? Some data from Tuscany, Central Italy. Water Air Soil Pollut 181:401–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pellegrini E, Cioni PL, Francini A et al (2012) Volatiles emission patterns in poplar clones varying in response to ozone. J Chem Ecol 38:924–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pellegrini E, Campanella A, Lorenzini G et al (2015) Ecophysiological and antioxidant of Salvia officinalis under ozone stress. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:13083–13093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Porter JR, Semenov MA (2005) Crop responses to climatic variations. Phil Trans R Soc B 360:2021–2035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ruan J, Wong MH (2001) Accumulation of fluoride and aluminium related to different varieties of tea plant. Environ Geochem Health 23:53–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ruan J, Ma LF, Shi YZ et al (2003) Uptake of fluoride by tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) and the impact of aluminium. J Sci Food Agric 83:1342–1348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shu WS, Zhang ZQ, Lan CY et al (2003) Fluoride and aluminium concentrations of tea plants and tea products from Sichuan Province, PR China. Chemosphere 52:1474–1482Google Scholar
  51. Smith RI, Harvey FJ, Cannell MGR (1993) Effects of light, temperature, irrigation and fertilizer on photosynthetic rate in tea (Camellia sinensis). Exp Agric 29:291–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Smith SJH, Pitcher TML (2001) Global and regional anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions. Glob Planet Change 29:99–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Song C, Wu L, Xie Y et al (2017) Air pollution in China: status and spatiotemporal variations. Environ Pollut 227:334–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stockwell WR, Kramm G, Scheel H-E et al (1997) Ozone formation, destruction and exposure in Europe and the United States. In: Sandermann H, Wellburn AR, Heath RL (eds) Ecological Studies, Vol. 127 – Forest decline and ozone. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 1–38Google Scholar
  55. Suzuki K, Tanaka Y, Kamimura R et al. (2013) The effects of various gas treatments on chemical compositions of tea (Camellia sinensis L.). In: abstracts 5th international conference on O-CHA(tea) culture and science, ShizuokaGoogle Scholar
  56. Tamaoki M (2008) The role of phytohormone signaling in ozone-induced cell death in plants. Plant Signal Behav 3:166–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. The Royal Society (2008) Ground-level ozone in the 21st century: future, trends, impact and policy implications: royal society policy document 15/08, London, pp 1–132Google Scholar
  58. Upadhyaya H, Panda SK (2013) Abiotic stress responses in tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze): an overview. Rev Agri Sci 1:1–10Google Scholar
  59. Wang LX, Tang JH, Xiao B et al (2013) Variation of photosynthesis, fatty acid composition, ATPase and acid phosphatase activities, and anatomical structure of two tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) cultivars in response to fluoride. Sci World J 2013:1–9Google Scholar
  60. Wang T, Xue L, Brimblecombe P et al (2017) Ozone pollution in China: a review of concentrations, meteorological influences, chemical precursors, and effects. Sci Tot Environ 575:1582–1596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Weinstein LH (1977) Fluoride and plant life. J Occup Med 19:49–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Weinstein LH, Davison AW (2004) Fluorides in the environment. CABI Publishing, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  63. Weinstein LH, Laurence JA (1999) Indigenous and cultivated plants as bioindicators. In: Biologic markers of air-pollution stress and damage in forests. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp 194–204Google Scholar
  64. WHO (2013) Review of evidence in health aspects of air pollution - REVIHAAP project. Technical Report, BonnGoogle Scholar
  65. Whyte MP, Totty WG, Lim VT et al (2008) Skeletal fluorosis from instant tea. J Bone Miner Res 23:759–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wijeratne MA, Fordham R (1996) Effect of environmental factors on growth and yield of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) in the low country wet zone of Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka J Tea Sci 64:21–34Google Scholar
  67. Wijeratne MA, Anandacoomarasqamy A, Amarathunga MK et al (2007) Assessment of impact of climate change on productivity of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plantations in Sri Lanka. J Natn Sci Foundation Sri Lanka 35:119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wynn PM, Fairchild IJ, Frisia S et al (2008) Isotopic archives of sulphate in speleothems. Geo Cosmo Acta 72:2465–2477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Xia T, Gao L (2009) Advances in biosynthesis pathways and regulation of flavonoids and catechins. Sci Agric Sinica 42:2899–2908Google Scholar
  70. Xin L, Golam JA, Zhixin L et al (2016) Decreased biosynthesis of jasmonic acid via lipoxygenase pathway compromised caffeine-induced resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides under elevated CO2 in tea seedlings. Phytopathology 106:1270–1277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Yang X, Yu Z, Zhang B et al (2003) The physiological function of tea polyphenols in tea tree. Tea polyphenols chemistry. Shanghai Science and Technology Press, Shanghai, pp 66–71Google Scholar
  72. Yang B, Sun T, Chen H et al (2015a) Effects of hydrogen fluoride-stress on physiological characteristics of theaceae tree seedlings. In: proceed 2nd International Conference on education, management and computing technology. Atlantis Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  73. Yang X, Yu Z, Zhang B et al (2015b) Effect of fluoride on the biosynthesis of catechins in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] leaves. Sci Hortic 184:78–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Yi J, Cao J (2008) Tea and fluorosis. J Fluor Chem 129:73–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Zhang W, Feng Z, Wang X et al (2012) Responses of native broadleaved woody species to elevated ozone in subtropical China. Environ Pollut 163:149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zhou L, Xu H, Mischke S et al (2014) Exogenous abscisic acid significantly affects proteome in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) exposed to drought stress. Hortic Res 1:14029CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lorenzo Cotrozzi
    • 1
  • Cristina Nali
    • 1
  • Elisa Pellegrini
    • 1
  • Giacomo Lorenzini
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agriculture, Food and EnvironmentUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations