Advertisement

Response of Tea Plants to Drought Stress

  • Wenjun Qian
  • Jianhui Hu
  • Xinfu Zhang
  • Lei Zhao
  • Yu Wang
  • ZhaoTang Ding
Chapter

Abstract

The tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.) is an important economic crop that is widely cultivated in the tropics and subtropics of Asia. As tea plants are a rain-fed perennial crop, both excessive soil moisture and water deficit can cause water stress in the plants. The most common water stress encountered is moisture deficit, known as drought stress, one of the most adverse factors that severely impairs tea plant growth and development, and limits its distribution, performance, yield, and quality. However, few studies have systematically reported the effects of water stress, especially drought stress, on the tea plant. In this chapter, therefore, we review the current state of drought stress and its progress in tea plants, with the aim being to explore the various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to such stress found in this species. Previous studies have demonstrated some key features in cultivated tea plants challenged by drought stress, such as (1) deep root systems, smaller and succulent leaves, and thickening of cuticle and palisade tissue; (2) water deficit, impairment in photosynthesis and respiration, stomatal closure, reduction of carbohydrate synthesis, acceleration of proteolysis, changes in lipid components in the normal cell wall structure; (3) protein denaturation of the plant tissues constituents, protoplast condensation, and the loss of cell wall semi-permeability; (4) enhanced free radical content, antioxidative systems, and osmoprotectant contents; (5) changes in the contents of minerals required for nutrition, hormones, polyphenols, and amino acids; (6) and changes in the transcription levels of many regulatory and functional genes. Understanding these response mechanisms of tea plants to drought stress is essential for improving the drought resistance of these plants by carrying out appropriate strategies such as mass screening and breeding; marker-assisted breeding; and exogenous application of osmoprotectants and hormones to seeds, seedlings, or growing tea plants, as well as undertaking genetic engineering for drought resistance.

Keywords

Camellia sinensis Dought stress Morphological response Physiological response Biochemical responses Molecular response 

References

  1. Abrams MD, Kubiske ME, Steiner KC (1990) Drought adaptations and responses in five genotypes of Fraxinus Pennsylvanica Marsh: photosynthesis, water relations and leaf morphology. Tree Physiol 6:305–315PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Abreu ME, Munne-Bosch S (2008) Salicylic acid may be involved in the regulation of drought-induced leaf senescence in perennials: a case study in field-grown Salvia officinalis L. plants. Environ Exp Bot 64:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agastian P, Kingsley SJ, Vivekanandan M (2000) Effect of salinity on photosynthesis and biochemical characteristics in mulberry genotypes. Photosynthetica 38:287–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmadi AA (1998) Effect of post-anthesis water stress on yield regulating processes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Ph. D. Thesis. University of London, Wye College, Wye, AshfordGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahmedi CB, Rouina BB, Sensoy S, Boukhris M, Abdallah FB (2009) Changes in gas exchange, proline accumulation and antioxidative enzyme activities in three olive cultivars under contrasting water availability regimes. Environ Exp Bot 67:345–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Allen DJ, Ort DR (2001) Impacts of chilling temperatures on photosynthesis in warm-climate plants. Trends Plant Sci 6:36–42PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Anjum SA, Wang LC, Farooq M, Hussain M, Xue LL, Zou CM (2011) Brassinolide application improves the drought tolerance in maize through modulation of enzymatic antioxidants and leaf gas exchange. J Agron Crop Sci 197:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arivalagan M, Somasundaram R (2017) Alteration of photosynthetic pigments and antioxidant systems in tomato under drought with Tebuconazole and Hexaconazole applications. J Sci Agric 1:146Google Scholar
  9. Asada K (1994) Mechanisms for scavenging reactive molecules generated in chloroplasts under light stress. In: Baker NR, Bower JR (eds) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis. Bios Scientific Publishers, Oxford, pp 131–145Google Scholar
  10. Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007) Roles of glycine, betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environ Exp Bot 59:206–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ashraf M, Iram A (2005) Drought stress induced changes in some organic substances in nodules and other plant parts of two potential legumes differing in salt tolerance. Flora 200:535–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bacelar EA, Colrreia CM, Mouninho-Pereira JM, Goncalves BC, Lopes JI, Torres-Pereira JM (2004) Sclerophylly and leaf anatomical traits of five field-grown olive cultivars growing under drought conditions. Tree Physiol 24:233–239PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Baldini E, Facini O, Nerozzi F, Rossi F, Rotondi A (1997) Leaf characteristics and optical properties of different woody species. Trees 12:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baligar VC, Fageria NK, He ZL (2001) Nutrient use efficiency in plants. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 32:921–950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bano A, Hansen H, Dorffling K, Hahn H (1994) Changes in the contents of free and conjugated abscisic acid, phaseic acid and cytokinins in xylem sap of drought stressed sunflower plants. Phytochemistry 37:345–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barora AC (1994) Gas exchange in tea (Camellia sinensis L.) under water stress. Two Bud 41:19–24Google Scholar
  17. Bartels D, Sunkar R (2005) Drought and salt tolerance in plants. Crit Rev Plant Sci 24:23–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Benjamin JG, Nielsen DC (2006) Water deficit effects on root distribution of soybean, field pea and chickpea. Field Crop Res 97:248–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bolhar-Nordenkampf HR (1987) Shoot morphology and leaf anatomy in relation to photosynthesis. In: Techniques in Bioproductivity and Photosynthesis. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 107–117Google Scholar
  20. Bosabalidis AM, Kofidis G (2002) Comparative effects of drought stress on leaf anatomy of two olive cultivars. Plant Sci 163:375–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Burgess PJ, Carr MKV (1993) Responses of tea (Camellia sinensis) clones to drought. I. Yield, dry matter production and partitioning. Asp Appl Biol 34:249–258Google Scholar
  22. Cechin I, Rossi SC, Oliveira VC, Fumis TF (2006) Photosynthetic responses and proline content of mature and young leaves of sunflower plants under water deficit. Photosynthetica 44:143–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chakraborty V, Dutta S, Chakraborty BN (2002) Responses of tea plant to water stress. Biol Plant 45:557–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chartzoulakis K, Patakas A, Bosabalidis A (1999) Changes in water relations, photosynthesis and leaf anatomy induced by intermittent drought in two olive cultivars. Environ Exp Bot 42:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chaves MM, Maroco JP, Periera S (2003) Understanding plant responses to drought from genes to the whole plant. Funct Plant Biol 30:239–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chaves MM, Flexas J, Pinheiro C (2009) Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. Ann Bot 103:446–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cheruiyot EK, Mumera LM, Ng’etich WK, Hassanali A, Wachira F (2007) Polyphenols as potential indicators for drought tolerance in tea (Camellia sinensis L.). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 71:2190–2197PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Cheruiyot EK, Mumera LM, Ng’etich WK, Hassanali A, Wachira F, Wanyoko JK (2008) Shoot epicatechin and epigallocatechin contents respond to water stress in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72:1219–1226PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Couée I, Sulmon C, Gouesbet G, El AA (2006) Involvement of soluble sugars in reactive oxygen species balance and responses to oxidative stress in plants. J Exp Bot 57:449–459PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Das A, Das S, Mondal TK (2012) Identification of differentially expressed gene profiles in young roots of tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] subjected to drought stress using suppression subtractive hybridization. Plant Mol Biol 30:1088–1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Das A, Mukhopadhyay M, Sarkar B, Saha D, Mondal TK (2015) Influence of drought stress on cellular ultrastructure and antioxidant system in tea cultivars with different drought sensitivities. J Environ Biol 36:875–882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Davies W, Zhang J (1991) Root signals and the regulation of growth and the development of plants in drying soil. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 42:55–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Del Blanco IA, Rajaram S, Kronstad WE, Reynolds MP (2000) Physiological performance of synthetic hexaploid wheat-derived populations. Crop Sci 40:1257–1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Demiral T, Turkan I (2004) Does exogenous glycinebetaine affect antioxidative system of rice seedlings under NaCl treatment? J Plant Physiol 161:1089–1110PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Devasagayam TP, Tilak JC, Boloor KK, Sane KS, Ghaskadbi SS, Lele RD (2004) Free radicals and antioxidants in human health: current status and future prospects. J Assoc Physicians India 52:794–804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Ennajeh M, Tounekti T, Vadel AM, Khemira H, Cochard H (2008) Water relations and drought-induced embolism in two olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties ‘Meski’ and ‘Chemlali’ under severe drought conditions. Tree Physiol 28:971–976PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Ennajeh M, Vadel AM, Cochard H, Khemira H (2010) Comparative impacts of water stress on the leaf anatomy of a drought-resistant and a drought-sensitive olive cultivar. J Pomol Hortic Sci 85:289–294Google Scholar
  38. Evans NH, McAinsh MR, Hetherington AM, Knight MR (2005) ROS perception in Arabidopsis thaliana: the ozone induced calcium response. Plant J 41:615–626PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Farooq M, Basra SMA, Wahid A, Cheema ZA, Cheema MA, Khaliq A (2008) Physiological role of exogenously applied glycinebetaine in improving drought tolerance of fine grain aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Agron Crop Sci 194:325–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Farooq M, Basra SMA, Wahid A, Ahmad N, Saleem BA (2009) Improving the drought tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by exogenous application of salicylic acid. J Agron Crop Sci 195:237–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Farooq M, Hussain M, Wahid A, Siddique KHM (2012) Drought stress in plants: an overview. In: Aroca R (ed) Plant responses to drought stress. Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 1–33Google Scholar
  42. Farooqui AHA, Kumar R, Fatima S, Sharma S (2000) Responses of different genotypes of lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus and C. pendulus) to water stress. J Plant Biol 27:277–282Google Scholar
  43. Figueiredo MVB, Buritya AH, Martınez CR, Chanway CP (2008) Alleviation of drought stress in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by co-inoculation with Paenibacillus polymyxa and Rhizobium tropici. Appl Soil Ecol 40:182–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Foyer CH, Fletcher JM (2001) Plant antioxidants: colour me healthy. Biologist 48:115–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gunes A, Kadioglu YK, Pilbeam DJ, Inal A, Coban S, Aksu A (2008) Influence of silicon on sunflower cultivars under drought stress, II: Essential and non-essential element uptake determined by polarized energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 39:1904–1927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gupta S, Bharalee R, Bhorali P, Das SK, Bhagawati P, Bandyopadhyay T, Gohain B, Agarwal N, Ahmed P, Borchetia S, Kalita MC, Handique AK, Das S (2013) Molecular analysis of drought tolerance in tea by cDNA-AFLP based transcript profiling. Mol Biotechnol 53:237–248PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Gutierrez-Boem FH, Thomas GW (1999) Phosphorus nutrition and water deficits in field grown soybeans. Plant Soil 207:87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Handique AC (1992) Some silent features in the study of drought resistance in tea. Two Bud 39:16–18Google Scholar
  49. Handique AC, Manivel L (1990) Selection criteria for drought tolerance in tea. Assam Rev. Tea News 79:18–21Google Scholar
  50. Hendry GAF (1993) Evolutionary origins and natural functions of fructans: a climatological, biogeography and mechanistic appraisal. New Phytol 123:3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hirayama T, Shinozaki K (2010) Research on plant abiotic stress responses in the post-genome era: past, present and future. Plant J 61:1041–1052PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Holbrook NM, Shashidhar VR, James RA, Munns R (2002) Stomatal control in tomato with ABA-deficient roots: response of grafted plants to soil drying. J Exp Bot 53:1503–1514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hu H, Sparks D (1991) Zinc deficiency inhibits chlorophyll synthesis and gas exchange in ʻStuartʼ pecan. Hortic Sci 26:267–268Google Scholar
  54. Huang GT, Ma SL, Bai LP, Zhang L, Ma H, Jia P, Liu J, Zhong M, Guo ZF (2012) Signal transduction during cold, salt, and drought stresses in plants. Mol Biol Rep 39:969–987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hussain M, Malik MA, Farooq M, Ashraf MY, Cheema MA (2008) Improving drought tolerance by exogenous application of glycinebetaine and salicylic acid in sunflower. J Agron Crop Sci 194:193–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Iturriaga G, Suãrez R, Nova-Franco B (2009) Trehalose metabolism: from osmoprotection to signaling. Int J Mol Sci 10:3793–3810PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Iyengar ERR, Reddy MP (1996) Photosynthesis in high salt-tolerant plants. In: Pesserkali M (ed) Handbook of photosynthesis. Marshal Dekar, Baton Rouge, pp 56–65Google Scholar
  58. Jain NK (1999) Global advances in tea science. Aravali Books International, NewDelhiGoogle Scholar
  59. Jebara S, Jebara M, Limam F, Aouani ME (2005) Changes in ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) nodules under salt stress. J Plant Physiol 162:929–936PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jeyaramraja PR, Meenakshi SN, Kumar RS, Joshi SD, Ramasubramanian B (2005) Water deficit induced oxidative damage in tea (Camellia sinensis) plants. J Plant Physiol 162:413–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kaplan F, Guy CL (2004) Beta-amylase induction and the protective role of maltose during temperature shock. Plant Physiol 135:1674–1684PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kiani SP, Talia P, Maury P, Grieu P, Heinz R, Perrault A, Nishinakamasu V, Hopp E, Gentzbittel L, Paniego N, Sarrafi A (2007) Genetic analysis of plant water status and osmotic adjustment in recombinant inbred lines of sunflower under two water treatments. Plant Sci 172:773–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kramer PJ, Boyer JS (1995) Water relations of plants and soils. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  64. Krasensky J, Jonak C (2012) Drought, salt, and temperature stress-induced metabolic rearrangements and regulatory networks. J Exp Bot 63:1593–1608PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Krishnaraj T, Gajjeraman P, Palanisamy S, Subhas Chandrabose SR, Azad Mandal AK (2011) Identification of differentially expressed genes in dormant (banjhi) bud of tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] using subtractive hybridization approach. Plant Physiol Bioch 49:565–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lawlor DW, Cornic G (2002) Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and associated metabolism in relation to water deficits in higher plants. Plant Cell Environ 25:275–294PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lawson T, Oxborough K, Morison JI, Baker NR (2003) The responses of guard and mesophyll cell photosynthesis to CO2, O2, light, and water stress in a range of species are similar. J Exp Bot 54:1743–1752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Li P, Koornneef M (2011) Fructose sensitivity is suppressed in Arabidopsis by the transcription factor ANAC089 lacking the membrane-bound domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:3436–3441PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Li YP, Ye W, Wang M, Yan XD (2009) Climate change and drought: a risk assessment of crop yield impacts. Clim Res 39:31–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lin SK, Lin J, Liu QL, Ai YF, Ke YQ, Chen C, Zhang ZY, He H (2014) Time-course of photosynthesis and non-structural carbon compounds in the leaves of tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) in response to deficit irrigation. Agr Water Manage 144:98–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lindemose S, Oshea C, Jensen MK, Skriver K (2013) Structure, function and networks of transcription factors involved in abiotic stress responses. Int J Mol Sci 14:5842–5878PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Liu SC, Yao MZ, Ma CL, Jin JQ, Ma JQ, Li CF, Chen L (2015) Physiological changes and differential gene expression of tea plant under dehydration and rehydration conditions. Sci Hortic 184:129–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Liu SC, Xu YX, Ma JQ, Wang WW, Chen W, Huang DJ, Fang J, Li XJ, Chen L (2016) Small RNA and degradome profiling reveals important roles for microRNAs and their targets in tea plant response to drought stress. Physiol Plant 158:435–451PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Loggini B, Scartazza A, Brugnoli E, Navari-Izzo F (1999) Antioxidative defense system, pigment composition, and photosynthetic efficiency in two wheat cultivars subjected to drought. Plant Physiol 119:1091–1099PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mahajan S, Tuteja N (2005) Cold, salinity and drought stresses: an overview. Arch Biochem Biophys 444:139–158PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Maritim TK, Kamunya SM, Mireji P, Mwendia V, Muoki RC, Cheruiyot EK, Wachira FN (2015) Physiological and biochemical responses of tea (Camellia sinensis L. O Kuntze) to water-deficit stress. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 90:395–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Masoumi A, Nabati J, Mohammad K (2017) The influence of drought stress on photosynthetic pigments and some metabolic contents of two Kochia scoparia ecotypes in saline condition. Adv Biores 8:55–61Google Scholar
  78. Mediavilla S, Escudero A, Heilmeier H (2001) Internal leaf anatomy and photosynthetic resource-use efficiency: interspecific and intraspecific comparisons. Tree Physiol 21:251–259PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Mittler R (2002) Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends Plant Sci 7:405–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mohanpuria P, Yadav SK (2012) Characterization of novel small RNAs from tea (Camellia sinensis L.). Mol Biol Rep 39:3977–3986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Moller IM, Jensen PE, Hansson A (2007) Oxidative modifications to cellular components in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 58:459–481PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Muoki RC, Paul A, Kumar S (2012) A shared response of thaumatin like protein, chitinase, and late embryogenesis abundant protein 3 to environmental stresses in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]. Funct Integr. Genomics 12:565–571Google Scholar
  83. Nayyar H, Gupta D (2006) Differential sensitivity of C3 and C4 plants to water deficit stress: association with oxidative stress and antioxidants. Environ Exp Bot 58:106–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Netto LA, Jayaram KM, Puthur JT (2010) Clonal variation of tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] in countering water deficiency. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 16:359–367PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Nevo E, Bolshakova MA, Martyn GI, Musatenko LI, Sytnik K, Pavléek T, Behatav A (2000) Drought and light anatomical adaptive leaf strategies in three woody species caused by microclimatic selection at “Evolution Canyon” Israel. Israel J Plant Sci 48:33–46Google Scholar
  86. Ng’etich WK, Stephens W (2001) Responses of tea to environment in Kenya. 1. Genotype x environment interactions for total dry matter production and yield. Exp Agric 37:333–342Google Scholar
  87. Nixon DJ, Burgess PJ, Sanga BNK, Carr MKV (2001) A comparison of the responses of mature and young clonal tea to drought. Exp Agric 37:391–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ozkur O, Ozdemir F, Bor M, Turkan I (2009) Physiochemical and antioxidant responses of the perennial xerophyte Capparis ovata Desf. to drought. Environ Exp Bot 66:487–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Panda RK, Stephens W, Matthews R (2003) Modelling the influence of irrigation on the potential yield of tea (Camellia sinensis) in North-East India. Exp Agric 39:181–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Parida AK, Das AB, Mittra B (2004) Effects of salt on growth, ion accumulation, photosynthesis and leaf anatomy of the mangrove Bruguiera parviflora. Trees Struct Funct 18:167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Parida AK, Dagaonkar VS, Phalak MS, Umalkar GV, Aurangabadkar LP (2007) Alterations in photosynthetic pigments, protein and osmotic components in cotton genotypes subjected to short-term drought stress followed by recovery. Plant Biotech Rep 1:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pastenes C, Pimentel P, Lillo J (2005) Leaf movements and photoinhibition in relation to water stress in field-grown beans. J Exp Bot 56:425–433PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Patra B, Ray S, Richter A, Majumder AL (2010) Enhanced salt tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants by co-expression of PcINO1 and McIMT1 is accompanied by increased level of myo-inositol and methylated inositol. Protoplasma 245:143–152PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Pego JV, Smeekens SCM (2000) Plant fructokinases: a sweet family get-together. Trends Plant Sci 5:531–536PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Pita P, Pardos JA (2001) Growth, leaf morphology, water use and tissue water relations of Eucalyptus globulus clones in response to water deficit. Tree Physiol 21:599–607PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Praba ML, Cairns JE, Babu RC, Lafitte HR (2009) Identification of physiological traits underlying cultivar differences in drought tolerance in rice and wheat. J Agron Crop Sci 195:30–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ramon M, Rolland F, Sheen J (2008) Sugar sensing and signaling. The Arabidopsis Book 6:e0117PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Reddy AR, Chaitanya KV, Vivekanandan M (2004) Drought-induced responses of photosynthesis and antioxidant metabolism in higher plants. J Plant Physiol 161:1189–1202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rhodes D, Samaras T (1994) Genetic control of osmoregulation in plants. In: Strange SK (ed) Cellular and molecular physiology of cell volume regulation. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 347–361Google Scholar
  100. Rivero RM, Kojima M, Gepstein A, Sakakibara H, Mittler R, Gepstein S, Blumwald E (2007) Delayed leaf senescence induces extreme drought tolerance in a flowering plant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19631–19636PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rivero RM, Shulaev V, Blumwald E (2009) Cytokinin-dependent photorespiration and the protection of photosynthesis during water deficit. Plant Physiol 150:1530–1540PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rolland F, Baena-Gonzalez E, Sheen J (2006) Sugar sensing and signaling in plants: conserved and novel mechanisms. Annu Rev Plant Biol 57:675–709PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Rontein D, Bassat G, Hanson HD (2002) Metabolic engineering of osmoprotectant accumulation in plants. Metab Eng 4:49–56PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. Rout NP, Shaw BP (2001) Salt tolerance in aquatic macrophytes: possible involvement of the antioxidative enzymes. Plant Sci 160:415–423PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Samarah NH, Alqudah AM, Amayreh JA, McAndrews GM (2009) The effect of late-terminal drought stress on yield components of four barley cultivars. J Agron Crop Sci 195:427–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sanders D, Pelloux J, Brownlee C, Harper JF (2002) Calcium at the crossroads of signaling. Plant Cell 14:S401–S417PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sengupta S, Patra B, Ray S, Majumder AL (2008) Inositol methyl transferase from a halophytic wild rice, Porteresia coarctata Roxb. (Tateoka): regulation of pinitol synthesis under abiotic stress. Plant Cell Environ 31:1442–1459PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Serraj R, Sinclair TR (2002) Osmolyte accumulation: can it really help increase crop yield under drought conditions? Plant Cell Environ 25:333–341PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Shao HB, Chu LY, Jaleel CA, Manivannan P, Panneerselvam R, Shao MA (2009) Understanding water deficit stress-induced changes in the basic metabolism of higher plants–biotechnologically and sustainably improving agriculture and the ecoenvironment in arid regions of the globe. Crit Rev Biotechnol 29:131–151PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Sharma PN, Kumar S (2005) Differential display-mediated identification of three drought-responsive expressed sequence tags in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]. J Bios 30:231–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sharma PN, Kumar N, Bisht SS (1994) Effect of zinc deficiency on chlorophyll contents, photosynthesis, and water relations of cauliflower plants. Photosynthetica 30:353–359Google Scholar
  112. Shen B, Jensen RG, Bohnert HJ (1997) Increased resistance to oxidative stress in transgenic plants by targeting mannitol biosynthesis to chloroplasts. Plant Physiol 113:1177–1183PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Siddique KHM, Regan KL, Tennant D, Thomson BD (2001) Water use and water use efficiency of cool season grain legumes in low rainfall Mediterranean-type environments. Eur J Agron 15:267–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Singh B, Singh G (2004) Influence of soil water regime on nutrient mobility and uptake by Dalbergia sissoo seedlings. Trop Ecol 45:337–340Google Scholar
  115. Steudle E (2000) Water uptake by plant roots: an integration of views. Plant Soil 226:45–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Stoop JHM, Williamson JD, Pharr DM (1996) Mannitol metabolism in plants: a method for coping with stress. Trends Plant Sci 1:139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Tambussi EA, Bartoli CG, Beltrano J, Guiamet JJ, Arans JL (2000) Oxidative damage to thylakoid proteins in water stressed leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Physiol Plant 108:398–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tezara W, Mitchell VJ, Driscoll SD, Lawlor DW (1999) Water stress inhibits plant photosynthesis by decreasing coupling factor and ATP. Nature 401:914–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Tony M, Samson K, Charles M, Paul M, Richard M, Mark W, Stomeo F, Sarah S, Martina K, Francis W (2016) Transcriptome-based identification of water-deficit stress responsive genes in the tea plant, Camellia sinensis. J Plant Biotechnol 43:302–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Upadhyaya H, Panda SK (2004a) Responses of Camellia sinensis to drought and rehydration. Biol Plant 48:597–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Upadhyaya H, Panda SK (2004b) Antioxidant efficiency and biochemical variations in five clones of Camellia sinensis L. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 10:115–120Google Scholar
  122. Upadhyaya H, Panda SK (2013) Abiotic stress responses in tea [Camellia sinensis L (O) Kuntze]: an overview. Rev Agr Sci 1:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Upadhyaya H, Panda SK, Dutta BK (2008) Variation of physiological and antioxidative responses in tea cultivars subjected to elevated water stress followed by rehydration recovery. Acta Physiol Plant 30:457–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Upadhyaya H, Dutta BK, Panda SK (2013) Zinc modulates drought-induced biochemical damages in tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O Kuntze]. J Agric Food Chem 61:6660–6670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Wang Z, Zhu Y, Wang L, Liu X, Liu Y, Phillips J, Deng X (2009) A WRKY transcription factor participates in dehydration tolerance in Boea hygrometrica by binding to the W-box elements of the galactinol synthase (BhGolS1) promoter. Planta 230:1155–1166PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. Wang W, Xin H, Wang M, Ma Q, Wang L, Kaleri NA, Wang Y, Li X (2016) Transcriptomic analysis reveals the molecular mechanisms of drought-stress-induced decreases in Camellia sinensis leaf quality. Front Plant Sci 7:385PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. Wang Y, Fan K, Wang J, Ding ZT, Wang H, Bi CH, Zhang YW, Sun HW (2017) Proteomic analysis of Camellia sinensis (L.) reveals a synergistic network in the response to drought stress and recovery. J Plant Physiol 219:91–99PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. Wijeratne MA, Fordhan R, Anandacumaraswamy A (1998) Water relations of clonal tea (Camellia sinensis L.) with reference to drought resistance: II. Effect of water stress. Trop Agri Res Exten 1:74–80Google Scholar
  129. Zheng C, Wang Y, Ding Z, Zhao L (2016) Global transcriptional analysis reveals the complex relationship between tea quality, leaf senescence and the responses to cold-drought combined stress in Camellia sinensis. Front Plant Sci 7:1858PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. Zhou L, Xu H, Mischke S, Meinhardt LW, Zhang D, Zhu X, Li X, Fang W (2014) Exogenous abscisic acid significantly affects proteome in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) exposed to drought stress. Hortic Res 1:14029PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Zhu M, Simons B, Zhu N, Oppenheimer DG, Chen S (2010) Analysis of abscisic acid responsive proteins in Brassica napus guard cells by multiplexed isobaric tagging. J Proteome 73:790–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wenjun Qian
    • 1
  • Jianhui Hu
    • 1
  • Xinfu Zhang
    • 1
  • Lei Zhao
    • 1
  • Yu Wang
    • 1
  • ZhaoTang Ding
    • 1
  1. 1.College of HorticultureQingdao Agricultural UniversityQingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations