Biochemical, Physiological and Molecular Defence Mechanisms of Tea Plants Against Pathogenic Agents Under Changing Climate Conditions

  • Aziz Karakaya
  • Murat Dikilitas


Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages after water in the world. It has delicate requirements in terms of agricultural and factorial processing. Tea is a popular drink; however, its biotic and abiotic stresses are lowering the quality of brewed tea. Researchers have concentrated mostly on its cultivation and processing or its sustainability and breeding. One of the main reasons behind this, tea needs specific places such as tropic or subtropic areas with high altitude and irrigation regimes. However, its diseases are as important as other diseases of crop plants. Moreover, diseases on tea could have more impact due to extensive climate changes that could have potential to reduce crop production through increased temperature, reduced humidity and prolonged drought conditions. The microorganisms adapted to live in these harsh conditions would also create more drastic consequences via increased levels of toxins and pathogenic enzymes that would increase the pathogenicity and the virulence of the microorganisms as well as reducing crop productivity and quality. In this chapter, we evaluated diseases occurring on tea plants and biochemical, physiological and molecular defence mechanisms of tea plants against pathogenic agents. Possible behaviours of pathogenic agents under projected climate change issues are also discussed.


Tea diseases Camellia sinensis Tea defence mechanisms Climate change 


  1. Achary VMM, Ram B, Manna M, Datta D, Bhatt A, Reddy MK, Agrawal PK (2017) Phosphite: a novel P fertilizer for weed management and pathogen control. Plant Biotechnol J 15(12):1493–1508PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed S, Stepp JR, Orians C, Griffin T, Matyas C, Robbat A, Cash S, Xue D, Long C, Unachukwu U, Buckley S, Small D, Kennely E (2014) Effects of extreme climate events on tea (Camellia sinensis) functional quality validate indigenous farmer knowledge and sensory preferences in tropical China. PLoS One 9(10):e109126PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ajay D, Baby UI (2010) Induction of systemic resistance to Exobasidium vexans in tea through SAR elicitors. Phytoparasitica 38(1):53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ali MA, Ali M, Huq M, Ahmed M (1993) In vitro studies on fungicides against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sac. The die back of tea. Sri Lanka J Tea Sci 62(1):25–31Google Scholar
  5. Ando Y (1992) Mechanism of replacement of the tea gray blight fungus Pestalotiopsis longiseta by the tea brown blight fungus Glomerella cingulata on the border of tea gray blight lesions. Bull Natl Res Inst Veg Ornam Plants Tea Ser B 5:29–37Google Scholar
  6. Ando Y, Hamaya E, Suzuki H (1985) Varietal differences in susceptibility to tea grey blight. Stud Tea 67:21–25Google Scholar
  7. Anonymous (1979) Annual report Tea Scientific Department, United Planters’ Association of Southern India for the period 1st January 1977 to 31st December 1977, 166 ppGoogle Scholar
  8. Anonymous (1993) Distribution maps of plant diseases. Phomopsis theae. International Mycological Institute. CABI. Map No. 493Google Scholar
  9. Baby UI, Ravichandran R, Ganesan V, Parthiban R, Sukumar S (1998) Effect of blister blight disease on the biochemical and quality constituents of green leaf and CTC tea. Trop Agric 75(4):452–456Google Scholar
  10. Bhattacharjee S (2010) Sites of generation and physicochemical basis of formation of reactive oxygen species in plant cell. In: Gupta SD (ed) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in higher plants. Science Publishers, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, pp 1–30Google Scholar
  11. Bolat I, Dikilitas M, Ikinci A, Ercisli S, Tonkaz T (2016) Morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics and bud success responses of Myrobolan 29 C plum rootstock subjected to water stress. Can J Plant Sci 96:485–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Booth C (1983) Exobasidium vexans. [Descriptions of fungi and bacteria]. IMI descriptions of fungi and bacteria. Sheet 779Google Scholar
  13. Bruno RS, Bomser JA, Ferruzzi MG (2014) Antioxidant capacity of green tea (Camellia sinensis). In: Preedy V (ed) Processing and impact on antioxidants in beverages. Academic, Amsterdam, pp 33–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cai HM, Dong YY, Li YY, Li DX, Peng CY, Zhang ZZ, Wan XC (2016) Physiological and cellular responses to fluoride stress in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves. Acta Physiol Plant 38(6):144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cao Z, Shu Q, Dong C, Zhang X (2014) Variation in physiological characteristics at developmental stage in different disease-resistant varieties of Camellia oleifera. Pak J Bot 46(1):207–212Google Scholar
  16. Chakraborty BN, Sharma M (2007) Serological detection and immunogold localization of cross-reactive antigens shared by Camellia sinensis and Exobasidium vexans. J Appl Microbiol 103(5):1669–1680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chakraborty BN, Rana S, Das S, Das G, Som R, Datta S, Chakraborty U (2005a) Defense strategies of tea towards foliar pathogens. In: Chakraborty U, Chakraborty B (eds) Stress biology. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 208–215Google Scholar
  18. Chakraborty BN, Sharma M, Das RB (2005b) Defense responses in tea plants triggered by Exobasidium vexans. In: Chakraborty U, Chakraborty B (eds) Stress biology. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 226–232Google Scholar
  19. Chandra S, Chakraborty N, Chakraborty A, Rai R, Bera B, Acharya K (2014) Induction of defence response against blister blight by calcium chloride in tea. Arch Phytopathol Plant Protect 47(19):2400–2409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chandra S, Chakraborty N, Panda K, Acharya K (2017) Chitosan-induced immunity in Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze against blister blight disease is mediated by nitric-oxide. Plant Physiol Biochem 115:298–307PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen T-M, Chen S-F (1982) Diseases of tea and their control in the People’s Republic of China. Plant Dis 66(10):961–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen JS, Thseng FM, Ko WH (1998) Macrophoma theicola: the causal organism of tea twig die-back in Taiwan. Recent development in tea production. Proceedings of the International Symposium. Taiwan Tea Experiment Station (Chiu TF, Wang CH eds). February 29–March 5, 1988, pp 197–203Google Scholar
  23. Chen L, Apostolides Z, Chen Z (2012) Global tea breeding: achievements, challenges and perspectives. Springer, Heidelberg, 384 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chen Y, Qiao W, Zeng L, Shen D, Liu Z, Wang X, Tong H (2017) Characterization, pathogenicity, and phylogenetic analyses of Colletotrichum species associated with brown blight disease on Camellia sinensis in China. Plant Dis 101(6):1022–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cheruiyot H (2014) Armillaria root rot (Armillaria mellea) of tea: biology, pathogenicity, symptoms and control. Tea 35(1):3–7Google Scholar
  26. Cheruiyot EK, Mumera LM, Ng’etich WK, Hassanali A, Wachira F (2007) Polyphenols as potential indicators for drought tolerance in tea (Camellia sinensis L). Biosci Biotech Biochem 71(9):2190–2197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dikilitas M, Karakas S (2012) Behaviour of plant pathogens for crops under stress during the determination of physiological, biochemical, and molecular approaches for salt stress tolerance. In: Ashraf M (ed) Crop production for agricultural improvement. Springer, Cham, pp 417–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dikilitas M, Karakas S (2014) Crop plants under saline-adapted fungal pathogens: an overview. In: Ahmad P, Rasool S (eds) Emerging technologies and management of crop stress tolerance, Volume II A sustainable approach, Elsevier/Academic, London/Sydney/San Francisco, pp 173–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dikilitas M, Karakas S, Hashem A, Abd Allah EF, Ahmad P (2016) Oxidative stress and plant responses to pathogens under drought conditions. In: Ahmad P (ed) Water stress and crop plants: a sustainable approach. Wiley, Chichester, pp 102–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dikilitas M, Yucel N, Dervis S (2017) Production of antioxidant and oxidant metabolites in tomato plants infected with Verticillium dahliae under saline conditions. In: Khan MIR, Khan NA (eds) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant systems in plants: role and regulation under abiotic stress. Springer, Singapore, pp 315–329Google Scholar
  31. Dzhalagoniya KT (1975) Macrophoma theicola on tea. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya 9(2):133–135Google Scholar
  32. Elad Y, Pertot I (2014) Climate change impacts on plant pathogens and plant diseases. J Crop Improve 28(1):99–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ertaş MN, Karakaya A (2018) Çay ve kivi bitkilerinde hastalık oluşturan Pestalotiopsis türleri. Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi 22(1):152–168Google Scholar
  34. Ertaş MN, Karakaya A, Çelik Oğuz A, Baştaş KK (2016) Pestalotiopsis species isolated from tea and kiwifruit plants in Turkey. Radovi Poljoprivrednog Fakulteta Univerziteta u Sarajevu (Works of the Faculty of Agriculture University of Sarajevo) 61, 66(1):264–268Google Scholar
  35. Gao XH (1997) Correlation between the occurrence of tea red leaf spot and the structure and spatial position of leaves. J Tea Sci 17(1):21–26Google Scholar
  36. Gao XH, Guo SH (1999) Studies on the epidemiology of tea red leaf spot (Phyllosticta theicola). Acta Phytophylacica Sin 26(2):133–136Google Scholar
  37. Garrett KA, Nita M, De Wolf ED, Esker PD, Gomez-Montano L, Sparks AH (2016) Plant pathogens as indicators of climate change. In: Letcher T (ed) Climate change, 2nd edn. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  38. Gautam HR, Bhardwaj ML, Kumar R (2013) Climate change and its impact on plant diseases. Curr Sci 105(12):1685–1691Google Scholar
  39. Gill SS, Tuteja N (2010) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 48:909–930PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gnanamangai BM, Ponmurugan P, Yazhini R, Pragadeesh SK (2011) PR enzyme activities of Cercospora theae causing bird’s eye spot disease in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). Plant Pathol J 10(1):13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. González-Lamothe R, Mitchell G, Gattuso M, Diarra M, Malouin F, Bouarab K (2009) Plant antimicrobial agents and their effects on plant and human pathogens. Int J Mol Sci 10(12):3400–3419PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Goto K (1985) The relative importance of precipitation and sugar content in potato peel for the detection of the incidence of common scab (Streptomyces scabies). Soil Sci Plant Nutr 31:419–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gulati A, Gulati A, Ravindranath SD, Gupta AK (1999) Variation in chemical composition and quality of tea (Camellia sinensis) with increasing blister blight (Exobasidium vexans) severity. Mycol Res 103(11):1380–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gunasekera TS, Paul ND, Ayres PG (1997) The effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B: 290–320 nm) radiation on blister blight disease of tea (Camellia sinensis). Plant Pathol 46(2):179–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hajiboland R (2017) Environmental and nutritional requirements for tea cultivation. Folia Hortic 29(2):199–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hamaya E (1981) Diseases of tea plant in Japan and their control. Rev Plant Protect Res 14:96–111Google Scholar
  47. Horikawa T (1986) Involvement of Pestalotia longiseta Spegazzini in outbreak of tea shoot blight and its infection period and sites. Ann Phytopathol Soc Japn 52(5):766–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ikeda N, Hirono Y, Yoshida K (2012) Relationship between lesion development and nitrogen content and maturity of tea leaves after artificial inoculation with the causal agent of tea bacterial shoot blight, Pseudomonas syringae pv. theae. Bull Nat Inst Veg Tea Sci 11:99–106Google Scholar
  49. Jayaswall K, Mahajan P, Singh G, Parmar R, Seth R, Raina A, Swarnkar M, Singh A, Shankar R, Sharma R (2016) Transcriptome analysis reveals candidate genes involved in blister blight defense in tea (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze). Sci Rep 6:30412Google Scholar
  50. Jeyaramraja PR, Pius PK, Manian S, Meenakshi SN (2010) Role of physical barriers and chitinase in conferring blister blight resistance to Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze. Res J Parasitol 5(3):166–173Google Scholar
  51. Karakaya A (2009) Phomopsis theae on Camellia sinensis in Turkey. J Plant Pathol 91:S4.105Google Scholar
  52. Karakaya A, Bayraktar H (2010) Botrytis disease of tea in Turkey. J Phytopathol 158(10):705–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Karakaya A, Çelik Oğuz A (2013) Rize ilinde ve Doğu Karadeniz bölgesinde çay bitkilerinde görülen hastalıklar. II. Rize Kalkınma Sempozyumu, 3–4 Mayıs 2013, Rize, TürkiyeGoogle Scholar
  54. Karakaya A, Moriwaki J, Sato T (2011) Tea diseases observed in Turkey. Asian Mycological Congress 2011 & the 12th International Marine and Freshwater Mycology Symposium. 7–11 August, 2011. Incheon, KoreaGoogle Scholar
  55. Kaur L, Jayasekera S, Moughan PJ (2014) Antioxidant quality of tea (Camellia sinensis) as affected by environmental factors. In: Preedy V (ed) Processing and impact on antioxidants in beverages. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 121–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Keith L, Ko W-H, Sato DW (2006) Identification guide for diseases of tea (Camellia sinensis). Cooperative Extension Service. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, PD-33Google Scholar
  57. Khalesi S, Sun J, Buys N, Jamshidi A, Nikbakht-Nasrabadi E, Khosravi-Boroujeni H (2014) Green tea catechins and blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Eur J Nutr 53(6):1299–1311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Khodaparast AS, Hedjaroude GA (1996) Fungal pathogens of tea plant in Northern Iran. Iran J Plant Path 32:233–243 (Pe), 168–170 (En)Google Scholar
  59. Kim HM, Kim J (2013) The effects of green tea on obesity and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab J 37(3):173–175PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Koh YJ, Shin G-H, Hur J-S (2001) Seasonal occurrence and development of gray blight of tea plants in Korea. Plant Pathol J 17(1):40–44Google Scholar
  61. Kos J, Hajnal EJ, Skrinjar M, Misan A, Mandi A, Jovanov P, Milovanovic I (2014) Presence of Fusarium toxins in maize from autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. Food Control 46:98–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kumar RR, Shalini D (2010) Defense mechanism of antioxidative enzymes against blister blight pathogen. Newsletter UPASI Tea Research Foundation 20(2):2Google Scholar
  63. Kuroda Y, Hara Y (1999) Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity of tea polyphenols. Mutat Res 436:69–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lang’at JK, Otieno W, Musau JM (1998) Evaluation of some Kenyan tea (Camellia sinensis) clones for resistance/susceptibility to Pestalotiopsis theae (Sawada) as influenced by some chemical attributes of mature green leaf. Tea 19(1):6–10Google Scholar
  65. Law M, Wald N, Morris J (2003) Lowering blood pressure to prevent myocardial infarction and stroke: a new preventive strategy. Health Technol Assess 7(31):1–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lehmann-Danzinger H (2000) Diseases and pests of tea: overview and possibilities of integrated pest and disease management. Tropenlandwirt 101(1):13–38Google Scholar
  67. Li X, Wu J, Jin L, Chen Z, Zhang R, Zhang X (2016a) Pest population survey of the main tea garden in Guizhou. Guizhou Agric Sci 44(3):73–75Google Scholar
  68. Li X, Ahammed GJ, Li Z, Tang M, Yan P, Han W (2016b) Decreased biosynthesis of jasmonic acid via lipoxygenase pathway compromised caffeine-induced resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides under elevated CO in tea seedlings. Phytopathology 106:1270–1277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Liu F, Weir BS, Damm U, Crous PW, Wang Y, Liu B, Wang M, Zhang M, Cai L (2015) Unravelling Colletotrichum species associated with Camellia: employing ApMat and GS loci to resolve species in the C. gloeosporioides complex. Persoonia 35:63–86PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lu Y, Hu Y, Li P (2017) Consistency of electrical and physiological properties of tea leaves on indicating critical cold temperature. Biosyst Eng 159:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Manici LM, Bregaglio S, Fumagalli D, Donatelli M (2014) Modelling soil borne fungal pathogens of arable crops under climate change. Int J Biometeorol 58:2071–2083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Matern U, Kneusel RE (1988) Phenolic compounds in plant disease resistance. Phytoparasitica 16:153–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Millin DJ (1987) Factors affecting quality of tea. In: Herschdoerfer S (ed) Quality control in the food industry. Academic, London, pp 127–160Google Scholar
  74. Mkervali VG (1972) The effect of nutrition on plant susceptibility to diseases. Subtropicheskie Kul’tury 2:167–170Google Scholar
  75. Mondal TK (2016) Breeding and biotechnology of tea and its wild species. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  76. Mouli BC (1988) Root diseases of tea and their control. J Coffee Res 18(Suppl 1):29–37Google Scholar
  77. Mouli C (primary collector) (1996) Diseases of Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze).
  78. Mouli BC (1997) Diseases in tea nursery and their management. Planters’ Chronicle 92(5):221–223Google Scholar
  79. Mouli BC (2003) Blister blight of tea: biology, epidemiology and management. Ann Rev Plant Pathol 2:145–162Google Scholar
  80. Mphangwe NIK, Vorster J, Steyn JM, Nyirenda EH, Taylor NJ, Apostolides Z (2013) Screening of tea (Camellia sinensis) for trait-associated molecular markers. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 171:437–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mulder D (1976) Diseases and disorders of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) in Indonesia. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent 41(2(II)):1331–1335Google Scholar
  82. Mur L, Hauck B, Winters A, Heald J, Lloyd A, Chakraborty U, Chakraborty B (2015) The development of tea blister caused by Exobasidium vexans in tea (Camellia sinensis) correlates with the reduced accumulation of some antimicrobial metabolites and the defence signals salicylic and jasmonic acids. Plant Pathol 64(6):1471–1483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Murugan M, Shetty PK, Ravi R, Anandhi A, Rajkumar AJ (2012) Climate change and crop yields in the Indian Cardamom Hills, 1978–2007 CE. Climatic Change 110:737–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mutai R, Cheramgoi E (2009) Topical issues: integrated management of stem canker – Phomopsis theae.TRFK. Q Bull 14(1):3–5Google Scholar
  85. Mwenje E, Wingfield BD, Coetzee MPA, Nemato H, Wingfield MJ (2006) Armillaria species on tea in Kenya identified using isozyme and DNA sequence comparisons. Plant Pathol 55(3):343–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Onsando JM, Wargo PM, Waudo SW (1997) Distribution, severity, and spread of Armillaria root disease in Kenya tea plantations. Plant Dis 81(2):133–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Otieno W, Sierra AP, Termorshuizen A (2003) Characterization of Armillaria isolates from tea (Camellia sinensis) in Kenya. Mycologia 95(1):160–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Palanisamy S, Mandal AK (2014) Susceptibility against grey blight disease-causing fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) cultivars is influenced by anti-oxidative enzymes. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 172(1):216–223PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Pereira V, Knor F, Vellosa J, Beltrame F (2014) Determination of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of green, black and white teas of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Theaceae. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais 16(3):490–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pius PK, Krishnamurthy KV, Nelson R (1998) Changes in saccharide metabolism induced by infection of Camellia sinensis by Exobasidium vexans. Biologia Plantarum 41(1):127–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ponmurugan P, Baby UI (2001) Effect of pre-disposing factors on phomopsis canker incidence. Newsletter – UPASI Tea Research Foundation 11(2):4Google Scholar
  92. Ponmurugan P, Baby UI (2007) Morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in resistant and susceptible cultivars of tea in relation to Phomopsis disease. Plant Pathol J 6(1):91–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ponmurugan P, Baby UI, Rajkumar R (2007) Growth, photosynthetic and biochemical responses of tea cultivars infected with various diseases. Photosynthetica 45(1):143–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Punyasiri PAN, Abeysinghe ISB, Kumar V (2005) Preformed and induced chemical resistance of tea leaf against Exobasidium vexans infection. J Chem Ecol 31(6):1315–1324PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Punyasiri PAN, Jeganathan B, Kottawa-Arachchi JD, Ranatunga MAB, Abeysinghe ISB, Gunasekare MTK, Bandara BMR (2017) Genotypic variation in biochemical compounds of the Sri Lankan tea (Camellia sinensis L.) accessions and their relationships to quality and biotic stresses. J Horticult Sci Biotechnol 92(5):502–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ramegowda V, Senthil-Kumar M, Ishiga Y, Kaundal A, Udayakumar M, Mysore KS (2013) Drought stress acclimation imparts tolerance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Pseudomonas syringae in Nicotiana benthamiana. Int J Mol Sci 14:9497–9513PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ramkumar S, Kumar PS, Sudhakar G, Anitha J, Geetha S, Mohankumar P, Gopalakrishnan VK (2016) Biochemical and molecular analysis of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze tea from the selected P/11/15 clone. J Gen Eng Biotechnol 14:69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rattan PS (1993) Incidence of Phomopsis stem and branch canker in Zimbabwe. Tea Research Foundation (Central Africa), Q Newsl October 1993 MW #49, 112: 23–24Google Scholar
  99. Ruan J (2004) The impact of pH and calcium on the uptake of fluoride by tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.). Ann Bot 93(1):97–105PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sabanayagam JV, Samarakoon HH, Shanmuganathan N (1974) Susceptibility of some tea clones to stem canker caused by Macrophoma theicola Petch in the Low Country. Tea Q 44(1):74–78Google Scholar
  101. Sanjay R, Baby UI (2007) Physiological and biochemical changes in tea leaves due to Pestalotiopsis infection. J Plant Crop 35(1):15–18Google Scholar
  102. Saravanakumar D, Vijayakumar C, Kumar N, Samiyappan R (2007) PGPR-induced defense responses in the tea plant against blister blight disease. Crop Prot 26:556–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Satyanarayana G, Padmanaban R, Barua GCS, Barua KC, Devnath SK (1982) Armillaria mellea – a primary root rot disease of tea (Camellia sinensis) in NE India. Two Bud 29(1):18–21Google Scholar
  104. Senthil-Kumar M (ed) (2017) Plant tolerance to individual and concurrent stresses. Springer, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  105. Senthilkumar P, Thirugnanasambantham K, Mandal AKA (2012) Suppressive subtractive hybridization approach revealed differential expression of hypersensitive response and reactive oxygen species production genes in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) leaves during Pestalotiopsis theae Infection. Appl Biochem Biotech 168:1917–1927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sharma V, Joshi R, Gulati A (2011) Seasonal clonal variations and effects of stresses on quality chemicals and prephenate dehydratase enzyme activity in tea (Camellia sinensis). Eur Food Res Technol 232:307–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Singh HR, Deka M, Das S (2015) Enhanced resistance to blister blight in transgenic tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) by overexpression of class I chitinase gene from potato (Solanum tuberosum). Funct Integr Genom 15(4):461–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sivanesan A, Holliday P (1972a) Rosellinia necatrix. [Descriptions of fungi and bacteria]. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria. Sheet 352Google Scholar
  109. Sivanesan A, Holliday P (1972b) Rosellinia arcuata. [Descriptions of fungi and bacteria]. IMI Descriptions of fungi and bacteria. Sheet 353Google Scholar
  110. Sivanesan A, Holliday P (1972c) Rosellinia bunodes. [Descriptions of fungi and bacteria]. IMI descriptions of fungi and bacteria. Sheet 351Google Scholar
  111. Subramanian N, Venkatesh P, Ganguli S, Sinkar VP (1999) Role of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in the generation of black tea theaflavins. J Agric Food Chem 47(7):2571–2578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sugha SK, Singh BM, Sharma DK, Sharma KL (1991) Effect of blister blight on tea quality. J Plant Crop 19(1):58–60Google Scholar
  113. Takeda Y (2002) Genetic analysis of tea gray blight resistance in tea plants. JARQ, Jpn Agric Res Q 36(3):143–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Takeda Y (2003) Phenotypes and genotypes related to tea gray blight disease resistance in the genetic resources of tea in Japan. JARQ, Jpn Agric Res Q 37(1):31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Takeda Y, Nagatomi S (1998) Tea clones highly resistant to grey tea blight selected from γ-irradiated tea cultivar Yabukita. Report of the Kyushu Branch of the Crop Science Society of Japan 64:44–46Google Scholar
  116. Upadhyaya H, Panda SK (2013) Abiotic stress responses in tea [Camellia sinensis L (O) Kuntze]: An overview. Rev Agric Sci 1:1–10Google Scholar
  117. Vyas D, Kumar S, Ahuja PS (2007) Tea (Camellia sinensis) clones with shorter periods of winter dormancy exhibit lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Tree Physiol 27:1253–1259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wang Y-C, Hao X-Y, Wang L, Xiao B, Wang X-C, Yang Y-J (2016a) Diverse Colletotrichum species cause anthracnose of tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) in China. Sci Rep 6:35287PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wang Y-C, Qian W-J, Li N-N, Hao X-Y, Wang L, Xiao B, Wang X-C, Yang Y-Z (2016b) Metabolic changes of caffeine in tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) as defense response to Colletotrichum fructicola. J Agric Food Chem 64(35):6685–6693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wang L, Wang Y, Cao H, Hao X, Zeng J, Yang Y, Wang X (2016c) Transcriptome analysis of an anthracnose-resistant tea plant cultivar reveals genes associated with resistance to Colletotrichum camelliae. PLoS One 11(2):e0148535PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wu Q, Chen F, Lei Y, Zhang J, Zhou G, Zhou H (2013) Analysis on the occurrence and its influencing factors of tea blister blight in Lishui city. J Tea Sci 33(2):131–139Google Scholar
  122. Xinzhang GY, Yang J, Shu Q (2012) Physiological mechanism of resistance to anthracnose of different Camellia varieties. Afr J Biotechnol 11(8):2026–2031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Yang CS (1997) Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea. Nature 389:134–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Yang W, Chen Y, Chen X, Yao Y, Zhou Y (2016) A new disease of tea plant caused by Phoma adianticola. J Tea Sci 36(1):59–67Google Scholar
  125. Yao M, Chen L (2012) Tea Germplasm and breeding in China. In: Global tea breeding, Advanced topics in science and technology in China. Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  126. Yie DM (1987) Occurrence and control of Phyllosticta theaefolia on tea plants in southwest Zhejiang mountainous areas. Plant Prot 13(3):13–14Google Scholar
  127. Yoshida K (2016) Assay of bacterial shoot blight resistance among tea cultivars and breeding lines using a field inoculation test. Bull Nat Inst Veg Tea Sci 15:35–47Google Scholar
  128. Yoshida K, Ogino A, Yamada K, Sonoda K (2010) Induction of disease resistance in tea (Camellia sinensis L.) by plant activators. Jpn Agric Res Q JARQ 44(4):391–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Zhang QF, Liu MY, Ruan JY (2017) Metabolomics analysis reveals the metabolic and functional roles of flavonoids in light-sensitive tea leaves. BMC Plant Biol 17:64PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zhu J, Obrycki JJ, Ochieng SA, Baker TC, Pickett JA, Smiley D (2005) Attraction of two lacewing species to volatiles produced by host plants and aphid prey. Naturwissenschaften 92:277–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of AgricultureAnkara UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of AgricultureHarran UniversityŞanlıurfaTurkey

Personalised recommendations