Concepts in Metabolism

  • Manju A. Lal


Though the vitalist group initially used the term “organic” for compounds produced only by organisms, it was later on used for carbon compounds. Wohler (1928) discovered that urea, which otherwise was thought to be produced only in the living beings, could also be produced in the laboratory from ammonia and bicarbonate. In 1897, German chemists Eduard Buchner and Hans Buchner demonstrated that fermentation could be carried out by the cell-free extract of yeast. These observations lead to the development of the science of biochemistry. In the early twentieth century, due to discovery of various metabolic pathways, biochemistry was dominated by organic chemistry, followed by enzymology and bioenergetics. Some of the analytical techniques which made study of biochemistry possible included isolation of organelles, high-performance liquid chromatography, electrophoresis, use of radioactive tracers, plant transformation techniques using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, gene silencing, forward genetics, reverse genetics, mass spectrometry, and DNA microarray, among others. With computational technology, it is now possible to have complete understanding of the interconnectivity of metabolic pathway.


Allosteric regulation Bioenergetics Cofactor Coupled reactions Gibbs free energy Holoenzyme Metabolic channeling Metabolic redundancy Michaelis-Menten constant Redox potential 

Suggested Further Readings

  1. Jones RL, Ougham H, Thomas H, Waaland S (2013) The molecular life of plants. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, pp 42–70Google Scholar
  2. Nelson DL, Cox MM (2017) Lehninger principles of biochemistry, 7th edn. W.H. Freeman, New York, pp 495–525Google Scholar
  3. Voet DJ, Voet JG, Charlotte WP (2008) Principles of biochemistry, 3rd edn. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 448–484Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manju A. Lal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyKirori Mal College, University of DelhiNew DelhiIndia

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