Sulfur, Phosphorus, and Iron Metabolism in Plants
Sulfur is an essential element for plant growth. Though it constitutes only 0.1% of the dry weight of a plant, its requirement for the plant is crucial. It is a constituent of sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine, and methionine which are integral to the protein structure. Cysteine residues are responsible for holding proteins in proper conformation because of disulfide linkages (-S-S-) between two –SH containing amino acids. Iron-sulfur (4Fe-4S) clusters present in various proteins are engaged in electron transport reactions. Sulfur is also a constituent of a number of molecules such as lipoic acid, thiamin, biotin, ACP, and coenzyme A, which are required as cofactors by various enzymes. Sulfur-containing lipids, sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, are structural constituents of thylakoids. Various secondary metabolites produced from cysteine and methionine have diverse roles in plants. Many molecules synthesized by the plants in response to abiotic and biotic stress contain sulfur. These include phytoalexins, thioredoxin, alliins, glucosinolates, etc. Alliins are found in onion and garlic, while glucosinolates are found in members of family Brassicaceae and are responsible for their flavor and smell. In some plants, elemental sulfur is deposited which functions as a potent fungicide (Fig. 12.1).
KeywordsAdenosine 5′-phosphosulfur Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Ferredoxin reductase/oxidase (FRO) Ferretin Frataxin (FH) Glutathione Iron-sulfur proteins Nicotianamine (NA)
Suggested Further Readings
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