Advertisement

Guilty by Association: The Issue of Gender Violence and the Targeted Killing of Men of Fighting Age in Times of Conflict

  • Marcus BoomenEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The term gender violence is often used to highlight the role gender dynamics and expectations have in the commission of violence against women. However, in this chapter, I intend to demonstrate how at least within times of conflict this term can also be used to identify types of violence committed against men. I will use the case study of the Bougainville civil war to demonstrate how in certain types of conflicts, combatants’ inability or unwillingness to distinguish hostile forces from the male civilian population can result in the disproportionate targeting of this group. Consequently, this demographic can be at increased risk of assault, torture, and murder at the hands of combatants as a result of their gender. The intention of this chapter is not to try and marginalize the victimization of women during times of war but merely to demonstrate how gender roles and expectations can result in unique forms of violence against men as well.

References

  1. Adams, Rebecca. 2001. Peace on Bougainville: Truce monitoring group. Wellington: Victoria University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Angstrom, Jan, and J.J. Widen. 2014. Contemporary military theory: The dynamics of war. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Apperley, Harry. 2015. Hidden victims: A call to action on sexual violence against men in conflict. Medicine, Conflict and Survival 31: 92–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aspinall, Edward, Robin Jeffrey, and Anthony Regan. 2013. Diminishing conflicts in Asia and the Pacific: Why some subside and others don’t. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Braithwaite, John. 2010. Reconciliation and architectures of commitment: Sequencing peace in Bougainville. Canberra: ANU Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carpenter, R. Charli. 2006. Recognizing gender-based violence against civilian men and boys in conflict situations. Security Dialogue 37: 83–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. ———. 2016. ‘Innocent women and children’: Gender, norms and the protection of civilians. Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Ellis, Lee, Richard D. Harley, and Anthony Walsh. 2010. Research methods in criminal justice and criminology: An interdisciplinary approach. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  9. Engelhart, K. 2012. Rule Britannia: Empire on trial. World Policy Journal 4: 94–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Englade, Kenneth F. 2015. Meltdown in Haditha: The killing of 24 Iraqi civilians by U.S. Marines and the failure of military justice. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.Google Scholar
  11. Goldstein, Joshua. 2003. War and gender: How gender shapes the war system and vice versa. Chicago: Chicago University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gorris, Ella Anna Philo. 2015. Invisible victims? Where are male victims of conflict-related sexual violence in international law and policy? European Journal of Women’s Studies 22: 412–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Grossman, Dave. 2014. On killing: The psychological cost of learning to kill in war and society. New York: Open Road Media.Google Scholar
  14. Honig, Jan Willem, and Norbert Both. 1996. Srebrenica: Record of a war crime. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  15. Howley, Patrick Francis. 2002. Breaking spears and mending hearts: Peacemakers and restorative justice in Bougainville. Sydney: Federation Press.Google Scholar
  16. Institute of Development Studies. 2017. Gender violence. Accessed May 4, 2017. http://www.ids.ac.uk/idsresearch/gender-violence.
  17. International Federation of the Red Cross and Crescent Societies. 2015. Unseen, unheard: Gender-based violence in disasters. Geneva: Author.Google Scholar
  18. Jones, Adam. 2008. Gender inclusive: Essays on violence, men, and feminist international relations. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. ———. 2010. Genocide: A comprehensive introduction. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kévorkian, Raymond. 2011. The Armenian genocide: A complete history. New York: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  21. Lewis, Chloé. 2014. Systemic silencing: Addressing sexual violence against men and boys in armed conflict and its aftermath. In Rethinking peacekeeping, gender equality and collective security. Thinking gender in transnational times, ed. G. Heathcote and D. Otto, 203–223. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  22. Mao, Tse-tung. 2000. On guerrilla warfare. Translated by S. B. Griffith. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  23. Mathur, Kanchan. 2004. Countering gender violence: Initiatives towards collective action in Rajasthan. New Delhi: SAGE Publications India.Google Scholar
  24. Merry, Sally Engle. 2011. Gender violence: A cultural perspective. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  25. Mojzes, Paul. 2011. Balkan genocides: Holocaust and ethnic cleansing in the twentieth century. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  26. Newsinger, John. 2015. British counterinsurgency. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. O’Toole, Laura L., Jessica R. Schiffman, Margie L. Kiter, and Edwards, eds. 2007. Gender violence: Interdisciplinary perspectives. New York: NYU Press.Google Scholar
  28. Özerdem, Alpaslan, and Sukanya Podder. 2011. Child soldiers: From recruitment to reintegration. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Randall, Amy E., ed. 2015. Genocide and gender in the twentieth century: A comparative survey. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.Google Scholar
  30. Reid, Graeme, and Liz Walker, eds. 2005. Men behaving differently: South Africa men since 1994. Cape Town: Juta and Company Ltd..Google Scholar
  31. Rieckhoff, Paul. 2006. Chasing ghosts: Failures and facades in Iraq: A soldier’s perspective. London: Penguin Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  32. Rose, Susan D. 2016. Challenging global gender violence: The global clothesline project. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  33. Rummel, Rudolph J. 2011. Death by government. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  34. Skinner, Tina, Marianne Hester, and Ellen Malos, eds. 2013. Researching gender violence. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Solangon, Sarah, and Preeti Patel. 2012. Sexual violence against men in countries affected by armed conflict. Conflict, Security & Development 12: 417–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sorabji, R., and D. Rodin, eds. 2006. The ethics of war: Shared problems in different traditions. Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
  37. Strouse, James C., and Richard P. Claude. 1976. Empirical comparative rights research: Some preliminary tests of development hypotheses. In Comparative Human Rights, ed. R.P. Claude, 51–67. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  38. United Nations Development Project. 2017. Population division data query. Accessed May 4, 2017. https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/DataQuery/.
  39. United Nations Population Fund. 2017. Gender-based violence. Accessed May 4, 2017. http://www.unfpa.org/gender-based-violence.
  40. Weiss, K.G. 2010. Too ashamed to report: Deconstructing the shame of sexual victimization. Feminist Criminology 5: 286–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yllo, Kersti, and M. Gabriela Torres, eds. 2016. Marital rape: Consent, marriage, and social change in global context. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of CanterburyChristchurchNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations