Advertisement

European Union Military Operations: The Use of Force in the Central African Republic, Chad, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo

  • Sergio AguilarEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The European Union (EU) has developed its own policy, strategy, norms, structure, and decision-making process to deal with security issues. In this sense, crisis management missions and operations emerged as a pragmatic response to the security challenges that the EU faced from the end of Cold War. Since the establishment of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) in 1999, the EU has launched missions and operations in 19 different countries ranging from advisory missions to large-scale military operations. Out of them, nine military operations were deployed in Africa. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Central African Republic (CAR) were established six military operations, among which four were authorised by the UN Security Council (UNSC) to take enforcement action in the performance of their mandate. This chapter focuses on EU military intervention in the DRC and the CAR in which the use of force was authorised. In this way, it focuses on Operation Artemis, EUFOR Chad/RCA, EUFOR RCA, and EUFOR DRC and addresses why, how, and what the context in which EU operations were established, as well as the implications of these interventions for EU presence and actions in the world.

Notes

Acknowledgement

This chapter is part of a research financed by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), Grant 2016/21211-8.

References

  1. Berg, Patrick. 2009. EUFOR Tchad/RCA: The EU serving French interests. In The EU as a strategic actor in the realm of security and defence, ed. Muriel Asseburg and Ronja Kempin, 57–69. Berlin: Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik.Google Scholar
  2. CDEF/DREX. 2016. 50 years of overseas operations in Africa (1964–2014). Cahier du RETEX–Research, April. Accessed November 25, 2016. https://www.cdef.terre.defense.gouv.fr/content/download/5870/75552/file/20160606_50-ans-d-OPEX-Afrique_US.pdf.
  3. Dijkstra, Hylke. 2010. The military operation of the EU in Chad and the Central African Republic: Good policy, bad politics. International Peacekeeping 17 (3): 395–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. EU—European Union. 2002. Council decision 2002/968/CFSP of 10 December 2002. Official Journal of the European Union. L 335/1, December 12. Accessed December 18, 2016. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=OJ%3AL%3A2002%3A335%3ATOC.
  5. ———. 2003a. A secure Europe in a better world—European security strategy. Brussels, December 12. Accessed February 27, 2016. http://consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/78367.pdf.
  6. ———. 2003b. Council decision 2003/202/CFSP of 18 March 2003. Official Journal of the European Union. L 76/43, March 22. Accessed December 18, 2016. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32003D0202.
  7. ———. 2003c. Council of The European Union. Joint Action 2003/423/CFSP of 5 June 2003. Official Journal of the European Union. L 143/52, June 11. Accessed October 21, 2016. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32003E0423.
  8. ———. 2006a. Council Decision 2006/482/CFSP of 10 April 2006. Official Journal of the European Union. L189. Brussels, July 12. Accessed December 18, 2016. http://ec.europa.eu/world/agreements/prepareCreateTreatiesWorkspace/treatiesGeneralData.do?step=0&redirect=true&treatyId=1543.
  9. ———. 2006b. Council secretariat. Factsheet, June 15. Accessed November 8, 2016. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/FactsheetEUFORDRCrevbyPress.pdf.
  10. ———. 2007a. Council Joint Action 2007/677/CFSP of 15 October 2007. Official Journal of the European Union. L 279: 21–24, October 23. Accessed November 15, 2016. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32007E0677.
  11. ———. 2008a. Council Decision 2008/178/CFSP of 28 January 2008. Official Journal of the European Union. L 57/30, March 1. Accessed December 18, 2016. http://ec.europa.eu/world/agreements/prepareCreateTreatiesWorkspace/treatiesGeneralData.do?step=0&redirect=true&treatyId=7021.
  12. ———. 2008b. Council of the EU. Joint Action 2008/749/CFSP of 19 September 2008. Official Journal of the European Union. L 252/39, September 20.Google Scholar
  13. ———. 2009. Council secretariat. EU military operation in Eastern Chad and North Eastern Central African Republic (EUFOR Tchad/RCA). March. Accessed September 21, 2016. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/esdp.
  14. ———. 2010. Consolidated versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union. Official Journal of the European Union. C 83/1, March 30. Accessed September 12, 2016. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/ALL/?uri=OJ%3AC%3A2010%3A083%3ATOC.
  15. ———. 2014a. Council Decision 2014/73/CFSP of 10 February 2014. Official Journal of the European Union. L 40, 59–62, February 11. Accessed October 12, 2016. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32014D0073.
  16. ———. 2014b. Council Decision 2014/73/CFSP. Accessed January 14, 2016. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2014:040:0059:0062:EN:PDF.
  17. ———. 2014c. Council Decision 2014/775/CFSP of 7 November 2014. Official Journal of the European Union. L 325/17, November 8. Accessed November 19, 2016. http://www.eeas.europa.eu/archives/csdp/missions-and-operations/eufor-rca/index_en.htm.
  18. ———. 2016c. EEAS. CSDP. EU Training Mission in Mali (EUTM Mali). Brussels, July. Accessed November 27, 2016. http://eeas.europa.eu/csdp/missions-and-operations/eutm-mali/pdf/factsheet_eutm_mali_en.pdf.
  19. ———. 2016d. EEAS. CSDP. European Union Training Mission–Somalia. Brussels, April. Accessed September 21, 2016. www.eeas.europa.eu/csdp/missions-and-operations/eutm-somalia.
  20. ———. 2016e. EEAS. EU military operation in Eastern Chad and North Eastern Central African Republic (EUFOR Tchad/RCA). Accessed September 25, 2016. http://www.eeas.europa.eu/archives/csdp/missions-and-operations/eufor-tchad-rca/pdf/01032009_factsheet_eufor-tchad-rca_en.pdf.
  21. ———. 2016f. EUNAVFOR Somalia. Accessed September 21, 2016. http://eunavfor.eu/.
  22. ———. 2016g. European commission. About European civil protection and humanitarian aid operations. Accessed November 8, 2016. http://ec.europa.eu/echo/who/about-echo_en.
  23. Fletcher, Pascal. 2008. CHAD rebel moves test EU force. Reuters, June 18. Accessed November 18, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-chad-rebels-eufor-idUSL1853105020080618.
  24. France. 2013. Ministère de la Défense. Sangaris: 1200 hommes. Paris, December 7. Accessed November 21, 2016. http://www.defense.gouv.fr/operations/actualites/sangaris-1200-hommes.
  25. ———. 2015. Ministère de l’interieur. Gendarmerie Nationale. Revue de la gendarmerie nationale 253. Accessed November 13, 2016. http://www.gendarmerie.interieur.gouv.fr/Notre-communication2/Publications-Documentations/La-revue/Revue-253.
  26. Gegout, Catherine. 2005. Causes and consequences of the EU’s military intervention in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A realist explanation. European Foreign Affairs Review 10: 427–443.Google Scholar
  27. Gobierno de Espanha. 2015. Spanish armed forces conclude mission in Central African Republic. La Moncloa, February 28. Accessed January 2, 2017. http://www.lamoncloa.gob.es/lang/en/gobierno/news/Paginas/2015/20150228-spanish-armed-fo.aspx.
  28. Griffin, Christopher. 2007. France, the United Kingdom, and European Union capacities for military action in Africa. School of International Relations, University of Southern California, Paper prepared for the Sixth Annual Pan-European Conference on International Relations, September 12–15, 2007, Turin, Italy. Accessed November 21, 2016. http://www.eisa-net.org/be-bruga/eisa/files/events/turin/Griffin-france_the_united_kingdom,_and_eu_capacities_-_christopher_griffin.pdf.
  29. Haine, Jean-Yves, and Bastian Giegerich. 2006. In Congo, a cosmetic EU operation. Editorials & Commentary-International Herald Tribune. The New York Times, June 12. Accessed November 21, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/12/opinion/12iht-edhaine.1954062.html.
  30. Hoebeke, Hans, Stéphanie Carette, and Koen Vlassenroot. 2007. EU support to the Democratic Republic of Congo. Brussels: Centre d’analyse stratégique.Google Scholar
  31. Homan, Kees. 2007. Operation Artemis in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In European Commission: Faster and more united? The debate about Europe’s crisis response capacity, 151–154; 151–155. Brussels, May.Google Scholar
  32. ICG. 2006. Securing Congo’s election: Lessons from the Kinshasa showdown. Africa Briefing 42: 4–5. Accessed November 10, 2016. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/25311/b042_securing_congos_elections.pdf.
  33. Kuehne, Winrich. 2009. How the EU organizes and conducts peace operations in Africa EUFOR/MINURCAT. Report 03/09. Berlin: Center for International Peace Operations.Google Scholar
  34. Major, Claudia. 2008. EU-UN cooperation in military crisis management: The experience of EUFOR RD Congo in 2006. Occasional Paper 72. Paris: European Union Institute for Security Studies, September. Accessed November 10, 2015. https://www.iss.europa.eu/sites/default/files/EUISSFiles/op-72.pdf.
  35. Marischka, Christoph. 2007. Informationen zur Militarisierung der EU, May. Accessed November 8, 2016. https://europaskriege.wordpress.com/fact-sheets-zu-eu-einsatzen/fact-sheet-eufor-rd-congo/.
  36. Mattelaer, Alexander. 2008. The strategic planning of EU military operations: The case of EUFOR Tchad/RCA. Working Paper 5. Paris: Institute for European Studies. Accessed November 10, 2015. https://www.ies.be/files/IES%20working%20paper%205_Alexander%20Mattelaer.pdf.
  37. Murphy, Ray. 2011. Post-UN withdrawal: An assessment of peacekeeping in Chad. Irish Yearbook of International Law 4 (5): 3–28.Google Scholar
  38. Nimark, Agnieszka. 2014. EUFOR RCA: EU force or farce? Opinión Europa 230. Accessed November 10, 2016. https://www.cidob.org/publicaciones/serie_de_publicacion/opinion/europa/eufor_rca_eu_force_or_farce.
  39. Sari, Aurel. 2008. The European Union Status of Forces Agreement (EU SOFA). Conflict Security Law.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jcsl/krp001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sourd, Roland. 2008. EUFOR TCHAD/RCA: The high stakes of a temporary mission. Actualités Européennes 17. Paris: Institut de Relations Internationales et Stratégiques.Google Scholar
  41. Tardy, Thierry. 2015. EUFOR RCA: Tough start, smooth end. ISS Alert 17. Paris: European Union Institute for Security Studies, March. Accessed November 25, 2015. https://www.iss.europa.eu/sites/default/files/EUISSFiles/Alert_17_EUFOR_RCA.pdf.
  42. The Global Peace Operations Review. 2009. Chad and the Central African Republic. New York, 37–38. Accessed November 25, 2016. http://peaceoperationsreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/2009_chad_car_mission_reviews.pdf.
  43. UK. 2014. House of Commons European Scrutiny Committee. Forty-fourth Report of Session 2013–14. London, April 8.Google Scholar
  44. UN—United Nations. 2003a. Resolution 1484. New York, May 30. Accessed February 12, 2016. http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/DRC_SRES%201484.pdf.
  45. ———. 2003b. S/2003/574. New York, May 28. Accessed November 14, 2015. http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/ROL%20S2003%20574.pdf.
  46. ———. 2006a. S/2006/219—Annex I, Letter dated 27 December 2005 from the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations to the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. New York, April 13. Accessed November 12, 2015. http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/DRC%20S2006219.pdf.
  47. ———. 2006b. S/RES/1671. New York, April 25. Accessed November 10, 2016. http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/un-documents/document/DRC%20SRES%201671.php.
  48. ———. 2007a. S005/07. United Nations Security Council. Presentation by Javier Solana, EU High Representative for the CFSP, on the Democratic Republic of Congo/EUFOR. New York, January 9. Accessed November 10, 2016. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/discours/92360.pdf.
  49. ———. 2007b. S/RES/1778 (2007). New York, September 25. Accessed November 15, 2016. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/N0751615.pdf.
  50. ———. 2008. S/RES/1834. New York, September 24. Accessed November 15, 2016. http://minurcat.unmissions.org/Portals/MINURCAT/Resolution%201834%20-%2024%20September%202008.pdf.
  51. ———. 2014. S/RES/2134. New York, January 28. Accessed January 2, 2017. http://unscr.com/en/resolutions/doc/2134.
  52. ———. 2016. DPKO. MONUC. Accessed February 27, 2016. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/monuc/.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculdade de Filosofia e CiênciasSao Paulo State UniversityMaríliaBrazil

Personalised recommendations