Research Framework for TEM Washback Study

  • Qian Xu
  • Jun Liu


The preceding literature review has shown that washback is a highly complex phenomenon, which can be mediated by numerous factors and be observed in various aspects of teaching and learning. This chapter first introduces the overall design of the study, and then each research instrument is analyzed in detail. Last, the research instruments are validated.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qian Xu
    • 1
  • Jun Liu
    • 2
  1. 1.Shanghai International Studies UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Shanghai University of Electric PowerShanghaiChina

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