Cytological and Histological Characteristics After Percutaneous Ethanol Injection and Radiofrequency Ablation in Various Thyroid Nodules

  • Dong Eun SongEmail author


Various nonsurgical treatment modalities have been used for patients with symptomatic benign (nonfunctioning or rarely hyperfunctioning) thyroid nodules and high surgical risk or who refuse to undergo thyroidectomy. These modalities include ultrasound-guided microwave ablation, percutaneous laser ablation, percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), and radiofrequency ablation (RFA). They recently represent as an acceptable alternative management to surgery [1].


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyAsan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea

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