Advertisement

Liquid-Based Cytology Technique for Thyroid Cytology

  • Claire W. MichaelEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is currently an acceptable technique utilized by most cytology laboratories across the world. Two different techniques are approved, ThinPrep® (Hologic Co., Marlborough, MA, USA) employing methanol fixation and a filtration-based methodology and SurePath® (BD Diagnostics-TriPath, Burlington, NC, USA) employing ethanol fixation and a sedimentation-based methodology. While both methods have been proven to perform equally or better than conventional direct smears, they both induce their own set of artifacts as a result of the wet fixation, methodology used, and elimination of manual spreading. It is now acknowledged that pathologists need to be acquainted with LBC and how it differs from direct smears to gain enough experience before implementing it in their practice. This chapter reviewed the up-to-date literature on LBC and describes the morphologic presentation and diagnostic tips for the different thyroid lesions on both LBC techniques.

Keywords

Thyroid Fine needle aspiration Liquid-based cytology ThinPrep SurePath 

References

  1. 1.
    Michael CW, McConnel J, Pecott J, Afify AM, Al-Khafaji B. Comparison of ThinPrep and TriPath PREP liquid-based preparations in nongynecologic specimens: a pilot study. Diagn Cytopathol. 2001;25(3):177–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cochand-Priollet B, Prat JJ, Polivka M, et al. Thyroid fine needle aspiration: the morphological features on ThinPrep slide preparations. Eighty cases with histological control. Cytopathology. 2003;14(6):343–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hoda RS. Non-gynecologic cytology on liquid-based preparations: a morphologic review of facts and artifacts. Diagn Cytopathol. 2007;35(10):621–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Michael CW, Hunter B. Interpretation of fine-needle aspirates processed by the ThinPrep technique: cytologic artifacts and diagnostic pitfalls. Diagn Cytopathol. 2000;23(1):6–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chong Y, Ji SJ, Kang CS, Lee EJ. Can liquid-based preparation substitute for conventional smear in thyroid fine-needle aspiration? A systematic review based on meta-analysis. Endocr Connect. 2017;6(8):817–29.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Afify AM, Liu J, Al-Khafaji BM. Cytologic artifacts and pitfalls of thyroid fine-needle aspiration using ThinPrep: a comparative retrospective review. Cancer. 2001;93(3):179–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nagarajan N, Schneider EB, Ali SZ, Zeiger MA, Olson MT. How do liquid-based preparations of thyroid fine-needle aspiration compare with conventional smears? An analysis of 5475 specimens. Thyroid. 2015;25(3):308–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fadda G, Rossi ED. Liquid-based cytology in fine-needle aspiration biopsies of the thyroid gland. Acta Cytol. 2011;55(5):389–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chang H, Lee E, Lee H, Choi J, Kim A, Kim BH. Comparison of diagnostic values of thyroid aspiration samples using liquid-based preparation and conventional smear: one-year experience in a single institution. APMIS. 2013;121(2):139–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Geers C, Bourgain C. Liquid-based FNAC of the thyroid: a 4-year survey with SurePath. Cancer Cytopathol. 2011;119(1):58–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hasteh F, Pang Y, Pu R, Michael CW. Do we need more than one ThinPrep to obtain adequate cellularity in fine needle aspiration? Diagn Cytopathol. 2007;35(11):740–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rossi ED, Morassi F, Santeusanio G, Zannoni GF, Fadda G. Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology processed by ThinPrep: an additional slide decreased the number of inadequate results. Cytopathology. 2010;21(2):97–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Moon WJ, Baek JH, Choi JW, et al. The Value of Gross Visual Assessment of Specimen Adequacy for Liquid-Based Cytology during Ultrasound-Guided, Fine-Needle Aspiration of Thyroid Nodules. Endocr Pract. 2015;21(11):1219–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stamataki M, Anninos D, Brountzos E, et al. The role of liquid-based cytology in the investigation of thyroid lesions. Cytopathology. 2008;19(1):11–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fischer AH, Clayton AC, Bentz JS, et al. Performance differences between conventional smears and liquid-based preparations of thyroid fine-needle aspiration samples: analysis of 47,076 responses in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Non-Gynecologic Cytology. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2013;137(1):26–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ljung BM. Thyroid fine-needle aspiration: smears versus liquid-based preparations. Cancer. 2008;114(3):144–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Biscotti CV, Hollow JA, Toddy SM, Easley KA. ThinPrep versus conventional smear cytologic preparations in the analysis of thyroid fine-needle aspiration specimens. Am J Clin Pathol. 1995;104(2):150–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Frost AR, Sidawy MK, Ferfelli M, et al. Utility of thin-layer preparations in thyroid fine-needle aspiration: diagnostic accuracy, cytomorphology, and optimal sample preparation. Cancer. 1998;84(1):17–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Malle D, Valeri RM, Pazaitou-Panajiotou K, Kiziridou A, Vainas I, Destouni C. Use of a thin-layer technique in thyroid fine needle aspiration. Acta Cytol. 2006;50(1):23–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rossi ED, Zannoni GF, Lombardi CP, et al. Morphological and immunocytochemical diagnosis of thyroiditis: comparison between conventional and liquid-based cytology. Diagn Cytopathol. 2012;40(5):404–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rossi ED, Raffaelli M, Zannoni GF, et al. Diagnostic efficacy of conventional as compared to liquid-based cytology in thyroid lesions: evaluation of 10,360 fine needle aspiration cytology cases. Acta Cytol. 2009;53(6):659–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kim SY, Kim EK, Moon HJ, et al. Combined use of conventional smear and liquid-based preparation versus conventional smear for thyroid fine-needle aspiration. Endocrine. 2016;53(1):157–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Suzuki A, Hirokawa M, Higuchi M, et al. Cytological characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma on LBC specimens, compared with conventional specimens. Diagn Cytopathol. 2015;43(2):108–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhang Y, Fraser JL, Wang HH. Morphologic predictors of papillary carcinoma on fine-needle aspiration of thyroid with ThinPrep preparations. Diagn Cytopathol. 2001;24(6):378–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lee SH, Jung CK, Bae JS, Jung SL, Choi YJ, Kang CS. Liquid-based cytology improves preoperative diagnostic accuracy of the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol. 2014;42(1):11–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schwock J, Desai G, Devon KM, Mete O, Dube V. Hobnail-variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in liquid-based cytology. Diagn Cytopathol. 2015;43(12):990–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Michael CW, Pang Y, Pu RT, Hasteh F, Griffith KA. Cellular adequacy for thyroid aspirates prepared by ThinPrep: how many cells are needed? Diagn Cytopathol. 2007;35(12):792–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations