Advertisement

Environmental Hazards and Toxicity Profile of Organic and Inorganic Pollutants of Tannery Wastewater and Bioremediation Approaches

  • Gaurav Saxena
  • Diane Purchase
  • Ram Naresh BharagavaEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Undoubtedly, leather industries are the key contributors in the economy of many developing countries. However, unfortunately these are also one of the major polluters worldwide, generating large volumes of high-strength wastewater having high pH, dark brown color, unpleasant odor, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, and a blend of highly toxic environmental pollutants. It reduces sunlight penetration in aquatic resources which in turn decreases both photosynthetic activity and dissolved oxygen concentration affecting aquatic life; however, on land, it causes reduction in soil alkalinity and inhibition of seed germination. Moreover, it may also create serious toxicity in living beings upon exposure. Therefore, it becomes necessary to adequately treat/detoxify the tannery wastewater to protect the environment and living beings. Therefore, this chapter provides an overview on the environmental impacts, toxicity profile of tannery wastewater, and existing and emerging bioremediation strategies for environmental safety.

Keywords

Tannery wastewater Pollutants Pollution Toxicity Bioremediation Environmental safety 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The financial support as “Major Research Projects” (Grant No.: EEQ/2017/000407) from “Science and Engineering Research Board” (SERB), Department of Science & Technology (DST), Government of India (GOI), New Delhi, India, and University Grant Commission (UGC) Fellowship received by Mr. Gaurav Saxena for doctoral studies is duly acknowledged.

References

  1. Afaq S, Rana KS (2009) Impact of leather dyes on total protein of fresh water teleost, Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.). Asian J Exp Sci 23(1):299–302Google Scholar
  2. Aguilar JRP, Cabriales JJP, Vega MM (2008) Identification and characterization of sulfuroxidizing bacteria in an artificial wetland that treats wastewater from a tannery. Int J Phytoremediation 10(5):359–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aich A, Chattopadhyay B, Datta S, Mukhopadhyay SK (2011) Impact of composite tannery effluent on the amino-transferase activities in a fish biosystem, using Guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) as an experimental model. Toxicol Environ Chem 93(1):85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aich A, Goswami AR, Roy US, Mukhopadhyay SK (2015) Ecotoxicological assessment of tannery effluent using guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) as an experimental model: a biomarker study. J Toxicol Environ Health A 78(4):278–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alam MZ, Ahmad S, Malik A (2009) Genotoxic and mutagenic potential of agricultural soil irrigated with tannery effluents at Jajmau (Kanpur), India. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 57(3):463–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anjali G, Sabumon PC (2014) Unprecedented development of anammox in presence of organic carbon using seed biomass from a tannery Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP). Bioresour Technol 153:30–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Apaydin O, Kurt U, Gonullu MT (2009) An investigation on tannery wastewater by electrocoagulation. Glob Nest J 11(4):546–555Google Scholar
  8. Aravindhan R, Madhan B, Rao R, Nair B, Ramasami T (2004) Bioaccumulation of chromium from tannery wastewater an approach for chrome recovery and reuse. Environ Sci Technol 38(1):300–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bharagava RN, Saxena G, Chowdhary P (2017a) Constructed wetlands: an emerging phytotechnology for degradation and detoxification of industrial wastewaters. In: Bharagava RN (ed) Environmental pollutants and their bioremediation approaches, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 397–426.  https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315173351-15 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bharagava RN, Chowdhary P, Saxena G (2017b) Bioremediation: an ecosustainable green technology: its applications and limitations. In: Bharagava RN (ed) Environmental pollutants and their bioremediation approaches, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 1–22.  https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315173351-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bharagava RN, Saxena G, Mulla SI, Patel DK (2018a) Characterization and identification of recalcitrant organic pollutants (ROPs) in tannery wastewater and its phytotoxicity evaluation for environmental safety. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 75(2):259–272.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-017-0490-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bharagava RN, Purchase D, Saxena G, Mulla SI (2018b) Applications of metagenomics in microbial bioremediation of pollutants: from genomics to environmental cleanup. In: Das S, Dash H (eds) Microbial diversity in the genomic era, 1st edn. Academic Press, Elsevier.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814849-5.00026-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhatnagar MK, Singh R, Gupta S, Bhatnagar P (2013) Study of tannery effluents and its effects on sediments of river Ganga in special reference to heavy metals at Jajmau, Kanpur, India. J Environ Res Dev 8(1):56–59Google Scholar
  14. Bhattacharya P, Swarnakar S, Mukhopadhyay A, Ghosh S (2016) Exposure of composite tannery effluent on snail, Pila globosa: a comparative assessment of toxic impacts of the untreated and membrane treated effluents. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 126:45–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Calheiros CSC, Rangel AOSS, Castro PML (2007) Constructed wetland systems vegetated with different plants applied to the treatment of tannery wastewater. Water Res 41(8):1790–1798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Calheiros CSC, Quiterio PVB, Silva G, Crispim LFC, Brix H, Moura SC, Castro PML (2012) Use of constructed wetland systems with Arundo and Sarcocornia for polishing high salinity tannery wastewater. J Environ Manag 95(1):66–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chandra R, Bharagava RN, Kapley A, Purohit HJ (2011) Bacterial diversity, organic pollutants and their metabolites in two aeration lagoons of common effluent treatment plant (CETP) during the degradation and detoxification of tannery wastewater. Bioresour Technol 102(3):2333–2341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chandra R, Saxena G, Kumar V (2015) Phytoremediation of environmental pollutants: an eco-sustainable green technology to environmental management. In: Chandra R (ed) Advances in biodegradation and bioremediation of industrial waste, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 1–30.  https://doi.org/10.1201/b18218-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. CPCB (2009) Recovery of better quality reusable salt from soak liquor of tanneries in solar evaporation pans. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) Ministry of Environment & Forests Control of Urban Pollution Series. Accessed online at http://cpcb.nic.in/displaypdf.php?id=UmVjb3Zlcl9zYWx0LnBkZg==
  20. Dantas TLP, Jose HJ, Moreira RFPM (2003) Fenton and photo-fenton oxidation of tannery wastewater. Acta Sci Technol 25(1):91–95Google Scholar
  21. Dixit S, Yadav A, Dwivedi PD, Das M (2015) Toxic hazards of leather industry and technologies to combat threat: a review. J Clean Prod 87:39–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Durai G, Rajasimmam M (2011) Biological treatment of tannery wastewater: a review. J Environ Sci Technol 4:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. El-Bestawy E, Al-Fassi F, Amer R, Aburokba R (2013) Biological treatment of leather-tanning industrial wastewater using free living bacteria. Adv Life Sci Technol 12:46–65Google Scholar
  24. Elmagd AM, Mahmoud MS (2014) Tannery wastewater treatment using activated sludge process system (lab scale modeling). Int J Eng Tech Res 2(5):21–28Google Scholar
  25. FAO (2008) Management of waste from animal product processing. Food and Agricultural Organisation of United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  26. Faouzi M, Merzouki M, Benlemlih M (2013) Contribution to optimize the biological treatment of synthetic tannery effluent by the sequencing batch reactor. J Mater Environ Sci 4(4):532–541Google Scholar
  27. Ganesh R, Balaji G, Ramanujam RA (2006) Biodegradation of tannery wastewater using sequencing batch reactor-respirometric assessment. Bioresour Technol 97(15):1815–1821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gautam S, Kaithwas G, Bharagava RN, Saxena G (2017) Pollutants in tannery wastewater, pharmacological effects and bioremediation approaches for human health protection and environmental safety. In: Bharagava RN (ed) Environmental pollutants and their bioremediation approaches, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 369–396.  https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315173351-14 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gautam SP, Saxena G, Singh V, Yadav AK, Bharagava RN (2018) Green synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles using leaf extract of Jatropha curcas L. for photocatalytic degradation of tannery wastewater. Chem Eng J 336:386–396.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2017.12.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gregorio SD, Giorgetti L, Castiglione MR, Mariotti L, Lorenzi R (2015) Phytoremediation for improving the quality of effluents from a conventional tannery wastewater treatment plant. Int J Environ Sci Technol 12(4):1387–1400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gupta R, Rani R, Chandra A, Kumar V (2018) Potential applications of Pseudomonas sp. (strain CPSB21) to ameliorate Cr6+ stress and phytoremediation of tannery effluent contaminated agricultural soils. Sci Rep 8:4860.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-23322-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. ILTIP (2010) Indian leather and tanning industry profile: Italian Trade Commission, pp 1–43Google Scholar
  33. Kanagasabi S, Kang YL, Manickam M, Ibrahim S, Pichiah S (2012) Intimate coupling of electro and biooxidation of tannery wastewater. Desalin Water Treat 51:34–36Google Scholar
  34. Kassaye G, Gabbiye N, Alemu A (2017) Phytoremediation of chromium from tannery wastewater using local plant species. Water Pract Technol 12(4):894–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kim IS, Ekpeghere KI, Ha SY, Kim BS, Song B, Kim JT, Kim HG, Koh SC (2014) Full scale biological treatment of tannery wastewater using the novel microbial consortium BM-S-1. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 49(3):355–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kongjao S, Damronglerd S, Hunsom M (2008) Simultaneous removal of organic and inorganic pollutants in tannery wastewater using electrocoagulation technique. Korean J Chem Eng 25(4):703–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kumar V, Majumdar C, Roy P (2008) Effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals from leather industry effluents on male reproductive system. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 111(3–5):208–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kurt U, Apaydin O, Gonullu MT (2007) Reduction of COD in wastewater from an organized tannery industrial region by electro-fenton process. J Hazard Mater 143(1–2):33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lefebvre ON, Vasudevan N, Torrijos M, Thanasekaran K, Moletta R (2005) Halophilic biological treatment of tannery soaks liquor in a sequencing batch reactor. Water Res 39(8):1471–1480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lefebvre ON, Vasudevan N, Torrijosa M, Thanasekaran K, Moletta R (2006) Anaerobic digestion of tannery soak liquor with an aerobic post-treatment. Water Res 40(7):1492–1500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Leta S, Assefa F, Gumaelius L, Dalhammar G (2004) Biological nitrogen and organic matter removal from tannery wastewater in pilot plant operations in Ethiopia. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 66(3):333–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lofrano G, Belgiorno V, Gallo M, Raimo A, Meric S (2006) Toxicity reduction in leather tanning wastewater by improved coagulation flocculation process. Glob Nest J 8(2):151–158Google Scholar
  43. Lofrano G, Meriç S, Zengin GE, Orhon D (2013) Chemical and biological treatment technologies for leather tannery chemicals and wastewaters: a review. Sci Total Environ 461-462:265–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mandal T, Dasgupta D, Mandal S, Datta S (2010) Treatment of leather industry by aerobic biological fenton oxidation process. J Hazard Mater 180(1–3):204–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mannucci A, Munz G, Mori G, Lubello C (2014) Factors affecting biological sulfate reduction in tannery wastewater treatment. Environ Eng Manag J 13(4):1005–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mant C, Costa S, Williams J, Tambourgi E (2004) Phytoremediation of chromium by model constructed wetland. Bioresour Technol 97(15):1767–1772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Matsumoto ST, Mnlovani SM, Malaguttii MIA, Dias AL, Fonseca IC, Morales MAM (2006) Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water contaminated with tannery effluent, as evaluated by the micronucleus test and comet assay using the fish Oreochromis niloticus and chromosome aberrations in onion root tips. Genet Mol Biol 29(1):148–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mondal A, Banerjee PK, Bhattacharjee C, Saha PD (2012) Treatment of chromium present in tannery wastewater using chemical & biological techniques. Elixir Pollut 49:9832–9835Google Scholar
  49. Munz G, Gori R, Cammilli L, Lubello C (2008) Characterization of tannery wastewater and biomass in a membrane bioreactor using respirometric analysis. Bioresour Technol 99(18):8612–8618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Munz G, De Angelis D, Gori R, Mori G, Casarci M, Lubello C (2009) The role of tannins in conventional angogated membrane treatment of tannery wastewater. J Hazard Mater 164(2–3):733–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nanda S, Sarangi PK, Abraham J (2010) Cyanobacterial remediation of industrial effluents Tannery effluents. New York Sci J 3(12):32–36Google Scholar
  52. Noorjahan CM (2014) Physicochemical characteristics, identification of bacteria and biodegradation of industrial effluent. J Bioremed Biodegr 5:229Google Scholar
  53. Onyancha D, Mavura W, Ngila J, Ongoma P, Chacha J (2008) Studies of chromium removal from tannery wastewaters by algae biosorbents, Spirogyra condensate and Rhizocolonium hieroglyphicum. J Hazard Mater 158(2–3):605–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Oral R, Meric S, De Nicola E, Petruzzelli D, Rocca CD, Pagano G (2007) Multi-species toxicity evaluation of a chromium-based leather tannery wastewater. Desalination 211:48–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Praveena M, Sandeep V, Kavitha N, Jayantha Rao K (2013) Impact of tannery effluent, chromium on hematological parameters in a fresh water fish, Labeo Rohita (Hamilton). Res J Animal Veterinary Fishery Sci 1(6):1–5Google Scholar
  56. Rajasimman M, Jayakumar M, Ravindranath E, Chitra K (2007) Treatment of solid and liquid wastes from tanneries in an UASB reactor. Proceedings of 60th Annual Session of Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers, CHEMCON-2007, Kolkata, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  57. Rameshraja D, Suresh S (2011) Treatment of tannery wastewater by various oxidation and combined processes. Int J Environ Res 5(2):349–360Google Scholar
  58. Ramteke PW, Awasthi S, Srinath T, Joseph B (2010) Efficiency assessment of common effluent treatment plant (CETP) treating tannery effluents. Environ Monit Assess 169(1–4):125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rocha OP, De Oliveira DP (2017) Investigation of a Brazilian tannery effluent by means of zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryo acute toxicity (FET) test. J Toxicol Environ Health Part A Curr Issues 80:1078–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Saxena G, Bharagava RN (2015) Persistent organic pollutants and bacterial communities present during the treatment of tannery wastewater. In: Chandra R (ed) Environmental waste management, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 217–247.  https://doi.org/10.1201/b19243-10 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Saxena G, Bharagava RN (2016) Ram Chandra: advances in biodegradation and bioremediation of industrial waste. Clean Techn Environ Policy 18:979–980.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10098-0151084-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Saxena G, Bharagava RN (2017) Organic and inorganic pollutants in industrial wastes, their ecotoxicological effects, health hazards and bioremediation approaches. In: Bharagava RN (ed) Environmental pollutants and their bioremediation approaches, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 23–56.  https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315173351-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Saxena G, Bharagava RN, Kaithwas G, Raj A (2015) Microbial indicators, pathogens and methods for their monitoring in water environment. J Water Health 13(2):319–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Saxena G, Chandra R, Bharagava RN (2016) Environmental pollution, toxicity profile and treatment approaches for tannery wastewater and its chemical pollutants. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 240:31–69.  https://doi.org/10.1007/398_2015_5009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shakoori AR, Makhdoom M, Haq RU (2000) Hexavalent chromium reduction by a dichromate resistant gram-positive bacterium isolated from effluents of tanneries. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 53(3):348–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sharma S, Malaviya P (2014) Bioremediation of tannery wastewater by chromium resistant fungal isolate Fusarium chlamydosporium SPFS2-g. Current World Envi 9:721–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sivaprakasam S, Mahadevan S, Sekar S, Rajakumar S (2008) Biological treatment of tannery wastewater by using salt-tolerant bacterial strains. Microb Cell Fact 7:15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Song Z, Williams CJ, Edyvean GJ (2000) Sedimentation of tannery wastewater. Water Res 34(7):2171–2176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sounderraj SFL, Lesley N, Senthilkumar P (2012) Studies on the effect of tannery effluent and chromium accumulation in common crop Tilapia mossambica. Int J Pharm Biol Arch 3(4):978–985Google Scholar
  70. Srivastava S, Thakur IS (2006) Isolation and process parameter optimization of Aspergillus sp. for removal of chromium from tannery effluent. Bioresour Technol 97:1167–1173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Srivastava S, Ahmad AH, Thakur IS (2007) Removal of chromium and pentachlorophenol from tannery wastewaters. Bioresour Technol 98(5):1128–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Szpyrkowicz L, Kaul SN, Neti Rao N, Satyanarayan S (2005) Influence of anode material on electrochemical oxidation for the treatment of tannery wastewater. Water Res 39(8):1601–1613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Thanigavel M (2004) Biodegradation of tannery effluent in fluidized bed bioreactor with low density biomass support. M. Tech. thesis. Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  74. Technical Guidance Manual for Tanneries (TGMT) (2010) Ministry of environment and forests, government of India. Accessed online at http://environmentclearance.nic.in/writereaddata/Form-1A/HomeLinks/TGM_Tannery_010910_NK.pdf
  75. Thanikaivelan P, Rao JR, Nair BU, Ramasami T (2005) Recent trends in leather making: processes, problems, and pathways. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 35(1):37–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tripathi M, Vikram S, Jain RK, Garg SK (2011) Isolation and growth characteristics of chromium (VI) and pentachlorophenol tolerant bacterial isolate from treated tannery effluent for its possible use in simultaneous bioremediation. Indian J Microbiol 51(1):61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. UNIDO (2000) United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO): pollutants in tannery effluent, definitions and environmental impact, limits for discharge into water bodies and sewersGoogle Scholar
  78. UNIDO (2010) United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO): future trends in the world leather and leather products industry and trade, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  79. Vankar PS, Bajpai D (2008) Phytoremediation of chrome-VI of tannery effluent by Trichoderma species. Desalination 222(1–3):255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Verma T, Ramteke PW, Garg SK (2008) Quality assessment of treated tannery wastewater with special emphasis on pathogenic E. coli detection through serotyping. Environ Monit Assess 145(1–3):243–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wang YS, Pan ZY, Lang JM, Xu JM, Zheng YG (2007) Bioleaching of chromium from tannery sludge by indigenous, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. J Hazard Mater 147(1–2):319–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wosnie A, Wondie A (2014) Assessment of downstream impact of Bahir Dar tannery effluent on the head of Blue Nile River using macroinvertebrates as bioindicators. Int J Biodivers Conserv 6:342–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Yusuf RO, Noor ZZ, Abu Hassan MA, Agarry SE, Solomon BO (2013) A comparison of the efficacy of two strains of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fragi in the treatment of tannery wastewater. Desalin Water Treat 51(16–18):3189–3195CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaurav Saxena
    • 1
  • Diane Purchase
    • 2
  • Ram Naresh Bharagava
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Bioremediation and Metagenomics Research (LBMR), Department of Microbiology (DM)Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University)LucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of Natural Sciences, Faculty of Science and TechnologyMiddlesex UniversityLondonUK

Personalised recommendations