Constructed Wetlands: An Eco-sustainable Phytotechnology for Degradation and Detoxification of Industrial Wastewaters

  • Mathews Simon MthembuEmail author
  • Christine Akinyi Odinga
  • Faizal Bux
  • Feroz Mahomed Swalaha


Globally, water quality is deteriorating at alarming levels and sanitation; infrastructures are also crumbling at an alarming rate due to technology and management challenges. While infrastructure inadequacy and poor maintenance of the existing structures continue to be a major driving force, industrialization and population increase have played a major role in the crisis of water shortage and wastewater treatment. The inability to recycle industrial wastewater is of particular importance to the socioeconomic development of the country. The water recycling challenges are even more prevalent in poor and developing countries where industrialization, coupled with limited resources and technologies for wastewater reclamation, is high. There is an urgent need for the development and implementation of innovative industrial wastewater management system that will be both cost-effective and environmentally friendly and be able to reduce industrial contaminants to the levels that will pose no harm to the communities, thus contributing to resolving industrial wastewater treatment constraints in developing countries and, in particular, in the remote poor areas of the developing countries. Phytotechnology has been studied and developed for this purpose and has proved a success in the treatment of both domestic and industrial wastewaters.


Constructed wetlands Industrial wastewater Phytotechnology Rhizofiltration Environmental sustainability Macrophytes 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mathews Simon Mthembu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christine Akinyi Odinga
    • 2
  • Faizal Bux
    • 2
  • Feroz Mahomed Swalaha
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and AgricultureUniversity of ZululandRichards BaySouth Africa
  2. 2.Institute for Water and Wastewater Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Food TechnologyDurban University of TechnologyDurbanSouth Africa

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