Toxicity of Hexavalent Chromium in Environment, Health Threats, and Its Bioremediation and Detoxification from Tannery Wastewater for Environmental Safety

  • Vidya Laxmi
  • Garima KaushikEmail author


Heavy metal pollution in the environment has become one of the major concerns worldwide due to its long persistency in the environment and highly toxic nature in living beings. Heavy metals are often non-biodegradable in nature and hence persist for a long time in the environment, cause serious soil and water pollution, and create severe health hazards in humans and animals. Among heavy metals, chromium has been considered as the highly toxic inorganic pollutant, which is disposed off in the environment through various natural and anthropogenic sources. Chromium has been also listed as the priority pollutant by many environment and health protection agencies such as the US Environmental Protection Agency and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Hexavalent form of chromium has been reported to cause genotoxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic effects in living beings. Hence, the removal of chromium from tannery wastewater is urgently required. The physicochemical approaches are currently applied for the removal of chromium from tannery wastewater, which are not eco-friendly in nature and use a huge amount of chemicals to treat tannery wastewater. However, biological approaches can be an eco-friendly alternative to treat and detoxify the chromium-containing tannery wastewater prior to its disposal in the environment. This chapter provides a detailed information about the sources of chromium contamination in the environment and their toxic effects in human, animal, plants, as well as in microbes and bioremediation approaches for its detoxification from tannery wastewater for environmental and public health safety.


Bioremediation Detoxification Health hazards Hexavalent chromium Tannery wastewater 



The author is extremely thankful to the Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship approved by the University Grants Commission (UGC).


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental ScienceCentral University of RajasthanKishangarh, AjmerIndia

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