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Small Teleosts Provide Hints Toward Understanding the Evolution of the Central Regulatory Mechanisms of Reproduction

  • Shinji Kanda
Chapter

Abstract

Reproduction is one of the most important characteristics of all living organisms. In vertebrates, interactions among the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonad are important for the regulation of reproduction. In spite of the wide variety of reproductive traits among species, the current knowledge regarding the central regulation of reproduction has mainly been acquired from mammalian studies until recently. This approach does not provide the information what is and is not common in vertebrates. Recently, molecular genetic tools became available that can be rather easily applied to the model teleost species, medaka and zebrafish. In particular, when these techniques are combined with classical surgeries developed in the twentieth century, medaka became one of the most powerful models for understanding the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction in vertebrates. Moreover, single-cell physiological approaches, such as patch-clamp electrophysiology and Ca2+ imaging, can be performed in established transgenic lines to unveil the regulatory mechanisms at the cellular level. By combining such physiological results and results from recently developed genome editing techniques, mechanism of central regulation of reproduction has been getting clear in teleosts. In this chapter, I will discuss recent developments in understanding the central regulatory mechanisms of reproduction in teleosts in comparison with the knowledge in mammals. By comparing these two classes, a broader picture of the evolution of reproductive regulation in vertebrates will emerge.

Keywords

GnRH Reproduction Hypothalamus Pituitary Kisspeptin Estrogen LH FSH 

Abbreviations

ARC

Arcuate nucleus

AVPV

Anteroventral periventricular

cmlc2

Cardiac myosin light chain 2

CRISPR

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone

FSHB

Follicle-stimulating hormone β

GnRH

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

GPA

Glycoprotein α

HPG axis

Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis

LH

Luteinizing hormone

LHB

Luteinizing hormone β

OVX

Ovariectomy

PMSG

Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin

POA

Preoptic area

TALEN

Transcription activator-like effector nuclease

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of ScienceUniversity of TokyoBunkyo, TokyoJapan

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