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Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) as an Emerging Risk Factor in the Elderly

  • Kunitoshi Iseki
Chapter
Part of the Current Topics in Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine book series (CTEHPM)

Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming an increasingly prevalent clinical entity, and its severity is defined by the combination of albuminuria (proteinuria) and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Chronicity denotes 3 months and longer. CKD was first recognized as a risk factor for CVD by cardiologists, but the association of CKD with many other diseases, such as bone, muscle, and gastrointestinal diseases, stroke (cognitive function), malignancies, and infection, has become increasingly recognized.

The term “elderly” is used for persons ≥65 years of age, whereas “very elderly” is reserved for persons ≥80 years of age. Chronologic age is used as a surrogate for biologic age, although this relationship is highly variable. The leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis therapy is DM, which accounts for approximately 44% of the total in Japan.

The elderly population is rapidly increasing in both developed and developing countries, and Japan has the highest rate of increase. The screening system for CKD is highly developed in Japan and begins with school children through the general population. Signs and symptoms associated with normal aging may, at least partly, be explained by the physiologic decline in the GFR.

The clinical relevance of CKD among the elderly population is becoming more evident. More studies of patient reported outcomes are needed for the development of clinical practice guidelines.

Keywords

Proteinuria Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) Chronic kidney disease (CKD) Cardiovascular disease (CVD) End-stage renal disease (ESRD) 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kunitoshi Iseki
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinical Research Support Center, Nakamura ClinicOkinawaJapan

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