Advertisement

Sharing in Caring: Equations Between the Father and Mother

  • Rajalakshmi SriramEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The focus of this chapter is to move beyond the notion of mother as a primary parent and look at ways in which mothers and fathers engage in parental roles, drawing from in-depth interviews with 15 purposively chosen couples, to represent variations in family type, mothers’ work status and age of children, supplemented with checklist data of 120 couples. The paper further examines fathers’ and mothers’ rationale for sharing of parental roles, drawing concepts of the social relations framework of gender studies (Miller C, Razavi S, Gender analysis: alternative paradigms, gender and development resource room. Retrieved February 3, 2002, from http://www.sdnp.undp.org/gender/resources/mono6.html, 1998). The focus is on personal factors and practical considerations that determine parental roles and responsibilities along with their rights and obligations which always are intertwined with social norms and grant differential bargaining powers across situations to individuals. The data is drawn from interviews and responses to vignettes with 45 couples. Parental responses show that the father and mother engage in a relationship of co-operation and exchange to maximise inputs, in the interest of children, indicating a move towards equal co-parenting. However, when these processes are evaluated using Gerson’s (An institutional perspective on generative fathering: creating social supports for parenting equity. In: Hawkins AJ, Dollahite DC (eds) Generative fathering: beyond deficit perspectives. Sage International, New Delhi, pp 17–34, 1997) schemata to understand if there is an equality in sharing of work related to parenting, decision-making and sacrifices, one still sees that the cult of materialism and patriarchal notions are evident in beliefs, though parents are moving towards more equal sharing, as evident in behaviours.

Keywords

Gender in parenting Father and mother roles Rationale for parental role division Sharing in caring 

References

  1. Boesveld, S. (2015, January 24). Do fathers make good mothers? Experts say special ‘maternal instincts’ are a societal construct. Canada. Retrieved from http://nationalpost.com/news/do-fathers-make-good-mothers-the-answer-may-surprise-you/wcm/d9bf7bcb-4b42-4f7f-adf5-d002ac8f2620
  2. Craig, L. (2006, April). Does father care mean father’s share ? A comparison of how mothers and fathers in intact families spend time with children. Gender & Society, 20(2), 259–281.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243205285212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Daly, K. J. (1995). Reshaping fatherhood: Finding the models. In W. Marsiglio (Ed.), Fatherhood: Contemporary theory, research and social policy (pp. 21–40). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Deutsch, F. M. (2001, February). Equally shared parenting. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(1), 25–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dienhart, A. (1998). Reshaping fatherhood: The social construction of shared parenting. New Delhi: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Doucet, A. (1995). Gender equality and gender differences in household work and parenting. Women’s Studies International Forum, 8(3), 271–284. Retrieved from http-server.carleton.ca/~adoucet/pdfs/Doucet_Gender_1995.pdf CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Doucet, A. (2009, May). Gender equality and gender differences: Parenting, habitus, and embodiment (The 2008 Porter lecture). Canadian Review of Sociology, 46(2), 103–121. Retrieved from www.andreadoucet.com/wp-content/.../Gender-Equality-and-Gender-Differences.pdf CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gerson, K. (1997). An institutional perspective on generative fathering: Creating social supports for parenting equity. In A. J. Hawkins & D. C. Dollahite (Eds.), Generative fathering: Beyond deficit perspectives (pp. 17–34). New Delhi: Sage International.Google Scholar
  9. Giorgi, A. (1985). Sketch of a psychological phenomenological method. In A. Giorgi (Ed.), Phenomenology and psychological research (pp. 8–22). Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Glaser, B. G. (2002, September). Constructivist grounded theory. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 3(3). Retrieved November 30, 2002, from http://www.qualitative-research.net/fqs-texte/3-02/3-02glaser-e.htm
  11. Lacey, A., & Luff, D. (2001). Trent focus for research and development in primary health care: An introduction to qualitative analysis. Trent Focus, 2001. Retrieved February 20, 2002, from http://www.trentfocus.org.uk/Resources/EPI-Info
  12. Levinson, D. (1978). The seasons of a man’s life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  13. Miller, T. (2011). Falling back into gender? Men’s narratives and practices around first-time fatherhood. Sociology, 45(6), 1094–1109.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038511419180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Miller, C., & Razavi, S. (1998, May). Gender analysis: Alternative paradigms, gender and development resource room. Retrieved February 3, 2002, from http://www.sdnp.undp.org/gender/resources/mono6.html
  15. Mishler, E. G. (1986). Research interviewing: Context and narrative. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Nsamenang, B. A. (2000). Fathers, families and child well being in Cameroon: A review of literature. Philadelphia: National Centre for Fathers and Families.Google Scholar
  17. Parke, W. (2017, April 15). Balancing the parenting styles of fathers and mothers. The Spruce. Retrieved from https://www.thespruce.com/balancing-parenting-styles-1270915
  18. Pope, C., Ziebland, S., & Mays, N. (2000). Qualitative research in health care: Analysing qualitative data. British Medical Journal, 320, 114–116. Retrieved February 20, 2002, from http://bmj.com/cgi/content/full/320/7227/114 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pruett, K. D. (2000). Father need: Why father care is as essential as mother care for your child. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  20. Raley, S., Bianchi, S. M., & Wang, W. (2012, March). When do fathers care? Mothers’ economic contribution and fathers’ involvement in child care. American Journal of Sociology, 117(5), 1422–1459.  https://doi.org/10.1086/663354. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4568757/pdf/nihms566272.pdf CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sandhu, G. (2008). Father involvement in supporting children’s achievement in the context of co-parenting. Unpublished master’s dissertation, Department of Human Development and Family studies. Baroda: The M.S. University of Baroda.Google Scholar
  22. Snarey, J. (1993). How fathers care for the next generation: A four decade study. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sriram, R., Karnik, R., & Ali, R. (2002). Social construction of fatherhood and motherhood: A view from within families. [Research Report] Mimeo. Baroda: Women’s Studies Research Centre, Maharaja Sayajiaro University of Baroda.Google Scholar
  24. Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. M. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  25. Valsiner, J., & Litvinic, G. (1996). Process of generalisation in parental reasoning. In C. Super & S. Harkness (Eds.), Parents’ cultural belief systems (pp. 56–82). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  26. Vouri, J. (2009, October). Men’s choices and masculine duties; fathers in expert discussions. Men and Masculinities, 12(1), 45–72. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1097184X07306720?journalCode=jmma
  27. Wejnert, B., & Djumabaeva, A. (2005). From patriarchy to egalitarianism: Parenting roles in democratizing Poland and Kyrgyzstan. Marriage and Family Review, 36(3–4), 147–171.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J002v36n03_08. Retrieved https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232836976_From_Patriarchy_to_Egalitarianism_Parenting_Roles_in_Democratizing_Poland_and_Kyrgyzstan CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Human Development and Family StudiesM.S. University of BarodaVadodaraIndia

Personalised recommendations