Concluding Remarks and Future Research Issues
In this book, we have presented three essential elements of long-lived innovative firms in terms of technology competence, customer competence, and linkage competence. The experiences of Japanese firms since 1990 suggest that customer competence and technology competence are necessary but not sufficient for sustainable competitive advantage. Instead, it is crucial for linkage competence to integrate the other two competences, translate innovative ideas into outstanding product vision and respond to the changing requirements of global markets. The role of linkage competence is becoming increasingly crucial for Japanese firms to reclaim their superior position worldwide.
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