Lung cancer is one of the most serious types of malignant tumor, threatening human health. In recent years, the incidence of lung cancer has increased significantly in China, and lung cancer is responsible for most malignant tumors in some developed areas. Tuberculosis is a chronic disease. China is one of 22 countries with the highest incidence of tuberculosis. Lobectomy or total pneumonectomy is currently the main treatment for lung cancer, cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis, localized bronchiectasis, and destruction of the lung [1, 2]. Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is one of the serious complications that can occur after a pneumonectomy. It can endanger the patient’s life if not treated properly. The incidence of BPF after pneumonectomy is 0.8–12.5% in the rest of the world, but in China the incidence of BPF after pneumonectomy is low, only 0.7–1.7%. The mortality rate for patients with BPF after traditional treatment for BPF is high, ranging from 12–71.2% [3, 4].
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