An Update on Sexually Transmitted Infections: An Indian Context
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Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are an important public health problem in the young reproductive age group worldwide. The exact prevalence of STIs in India is not known because of insufficient reporting and privacy regarding these diseases. There is a change in epidemiology of various STIs in India. The incidence of bacterial diseases like syphilis, gonorrhea, and chancroid is decreasing, and the viral STIs are increasing. Various newer methods like NAAT (nucleic acid amplification technique) and point-of-care (POC) testing have increased the sensitivity of the diagnosis and made it more rapid. Various newer methods like real-time PCR, strand displacement amplification, and transcription-mediated amplification have been approved for the diagnosis of gonorrhea, chlamydial, and trichomonal infections causing STIs using different primers. There has been isolation of strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae having high MIC for cefixime and ceftriaxone from France, Spain, and Japan. The spread of this highly resistant strain of N. gonorrhoeae would be catastrophic. Government of India advocates syndromic management of STIs wherein treatment for sexually transmitted infections is given according to the syndrome the patient is presenting with like vaginal discharge, urethral discharge, genital ulcer, etc.
KeywordsDiagnosis India Sexually transmitted infections
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