Recurrent Vulvovaginal Infections: Etiology, Diagnosis, Treatment and Management

  • Jatinder Singh
  • Namarta Kalia
  • Manpreet Kaur


Abnormal vaginal discharge is a representative attribute of vulvovaginal infections (VVI). Frequent episodes of these infections are referred to as recurrent VVI (RVVI). The most common types of RVVI are vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). These infections are a significant cause of HIV acquisition and reproductive morbidity and hence have become a leading public health concern. The disturbances in vaginal ecosystem are the key events in the development of these disease conditions. The development of RVVI has been shown to be influenced by various host-related and behavioural risk factors. Traditional techniques used for detection of RVVI pathogens are based on the physiological and morphological characteristics. However, precise recognition of different clinical isolates is often found lengthy and complex. Therefore, many automatic as well as manual systems have been developed for the rapid identification of these opportunistic pathogens, though some of these methods were found to have considerable sensitivity issues. These limitations have been addressed by the development of various molecular typing techniques, which permits the early detections of these pathogens. However, incomplete understanding of pathophysiology of RVVI is a significant hurdle in the development of optimal treatment and prevention approaches. This chapter provides a comprehensive compilation of the present status of knowledge regarding etiology, diagnosis, treatment and management of RVVI. Systematic investigations in this particular area can provide better understanding of RVVI, further contributing to novel target recognition for more proficient therapeutic advances against these clinically relevant infections.


Antimycotics Anti-RVVI vaccines Mixed infections Molecular approaches Probiotics Vaginal microbiota 



The authors express their sincere gratitude to the University Grants Commission, New Delhi, Govt. of India for providing Ph.D. fellowship to Namarta Kalia.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jatinder Singh
    • 1
  • Namarta Kalia
    • 1
  • Manpreet Kaur
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Molecular Biology and BiochemistryGuru Nanak Dev UniversityAmritsarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Human GeneticsGuru Nanak Dev UniversityAmritsarIndia

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