TGR5 Receptor

  • Senthilkumar Rajagopal
  • Murugavel Ponnusamy


Bile acid activated TGR5 is a G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR 1), which is also known as membrane type receptor (M-BAR). The single TGR5 exon gene encodes a protein of 330 amino acids and predicated seven transmembrane domain structures. The most of the tissues in humans such as endocrine glands, adipocytes, muscles, gall bladder, immune organs, spinal cord, and the enteric nervous system express TGR5 receptors. Whereas, liver and intestine have high levels expressions of nuclear receptor farenosid X-receptor (FXR). The primary and secondary bile acids act as agonist for this receptor and various steroid hormones as well. The mode of TGR5 activation varies depends on the tissue and it activates different signaling cascades depending on the cell type. The plasma membrane receptor TGR5 and nuclear receptor FXR can modulate endocrine function of bile acid. This chapter summarizes the basic information of TGR5 and FXR and their physiology and pathological functions.


Bile acids Contraction and relaxation Nuclear receptor Plasma membrane receptor Smooth muscle physiology 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Senthilkumar Rajagopal
    • 1
  • Murugavel Ponnusamy
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryRayalaseema UniversityKurnoolIndia
  2. 2.Center for Developmental Cardiology, Institute for Translational MedicineQingdao UniversityQingdaoChina

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