Application of the Fractal Defected Ground Structure in Design of the Bandpass Filter

  • Chandni V. Desai
  • Pravin R. PrajapatiEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 810)


The design of planar filter using stepped impedance type distributed synthesis has been proposed for 8.6–9.5 GHz frequency band. To improve the return loss characteristics, instead of using traditional defected ground structure (DGS), the combination of fractal geometry and DGS, known as ‘fractal DGS’ has been embedded in the ground plane of the filter. The filter using fractal geometry gives 65% better return loss as compared to filter without DGS. Three laboratory prototypes (without DGS, first iteration DGS and second iteration DGS) have been developed to validate the simulated and measured results. The measured results are agreed with simulated one.


Ground structure Fractal geometry Bandpass filter 


  1. 1.
    Khalida, S., Shafique, M.F.: Exact synthesis design theory of analogue broadband bandpass filter. Microelectron. J. 64, 53–59 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rahmat-Samii, Y., Mosallaei, H.: Electromagnetic band-gap structures: classification, characterization and applications. In: Proceedings of IEE-ICAP Symposium, vol. 2, pp. 5601–5644 (2001)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Iyer, B., Pathak, N., Ghosh, D.: Concurrent dualband patch antenna array for non-invasive human vital sign detection application. In: IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Applied Electromagnetics (APACE), pp. 150–153 (2014)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arya, A.K.: Design studies of specific microstrip antennas with defected ground structure. Ph.D. thesis, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, India (2012)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bark, H., Tavakoli, A.: Applications of spiral defected ground structures in design of a compact microstrip slot antenna. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Antenna and Propagation Society, Honolulu, USA (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arya, A.K., Kartikeyan, M.V., Patnaik, A.: On the size reduction of microstrip antenna with DGS. In: Proceedings of 35th International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMWTHz-2010), vol. 13, Rome, Italy (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Thakur, J.P., Park, J.: An advanced design approach for circular polarization of microstrip antenna with unbalance DGS feed-line. IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 5, 101–103 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Salehi, M., Tawakoli, A.: A novel low mutual coupling microstrip antenna array design using detected ground structure. Int. J. Electron. Commun. 60, 718–723 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hou, D.B., Xiao, S., Wang, B.Z., Ziang, L., Wang, J., Hong, W.: Elimination of scan blindness with compact defected ground structures in microstrip array, antennas. IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 3, 269–275 (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Prajapati, P.R.: Application of defected ground structure to suppress out of band harmonics for WLAN microstrip antenna. Int. J. Microw. Sci. Technol. 1–9 (2015). Hindawi PublicationCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zulkifli, F.Y., Rahardjo, E.T., Hartanto, D.: Radiation properties enhancement of triangular patch microstrip antenna array using hexagonal defected ground structure. Prog. Electromagn. Res. 5, 101–109 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Peitgen, H.O., Jurgens, H., Saupe, D.: Chaos and Fractals: New Frontiers of Science. Springer, New York (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Falconer, K.J.: Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications. Wiley, New York (1990)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen, W.L., Wang, G.-M., Qi, Y.-N.: A compact wide-stop band Koch-shaped electromagnetic band gap microstrip low-pass filter. Microw. J. 10(50), 160–166 (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen, W.L., Wang, G.M.: Design of novel fractal-shaped branch-line couplers. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 5(50), 1198–1201 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen, W.L., Wang, G.M.: Exact design of novel miniaturized fractal-shaped branch-line couplers using phase-equalizing methodGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kim, H.M., Lee, B.: Bandgap and slow/fast wave characteristics of defected ground structures including left-handed features. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 7(54), 3113–3120 (2006)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen, Y., Manteuffel, D.: Distributed MEMS impedance matching network using a SWDGS technique. In: Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference (LAPC), pp. 1–4, Loughborough (2012)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cao, L., Hu, J., Yin, L.: Compact coaxial dielectric bandpass filter with load-source coupling. In: Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC), pp. 1–3, Nanjing (2015)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pal, B., Dwari, S.: A compact parallel coupled wideband bandpass filter with DGS and spurline. In: International Conference on Microwave and Photonics (ICMAP), pp. 1–2, Dhanbad, India (2015)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringCenter of Research in Optical, Microwave and Antenna (CROMA), A. D. Patel Institute of TechnologyKaramsadIndia

Personalised recommendations