Energy Input–Output Analysis for Household Sector of India

  • Chetana ChaudhuriEmail author
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics book series (SPBE)


With expanding population, increase in standard of living and associated growth in demand for goods and services lead to higher demand for energy resources. Excessive use of energy causes environmental degradation and pollution. People from lower income group are more vulnerable to the effects of environmental degradation, because of limited access to resources to abate the adverse effects of environmental hazards. But residential sector is responsible for consumption of bulk of energy in different forms and plays a crucial role in determining the pattern of energy consumption of the economy. It consumes energy directly in form of primary fuels like coal or in form of secondary fuels like electricity or petroleum products. Additionally, all the goods and services consumed by this sector require different forms of energy in production, distribution, and transport process, which are carried out in different sectors. This paper identifies energy-intensive sectors in Indian economy and explores the role of residential sector in energy consumption, in direct and aggregate terms, through energy input–output analysis. Results show evidence of high-energy intensity in electricity and petroleum products. Among non-energy sectors, direct energy intensity is high for chemical and cement industries. Apart from these industries, total energy intensity is high for textile, leather and rubber, metal products among manufacturing industries, and for transport, storage and communication among services sector. The analysis shows that average per capita total (direct and indirect) energy consumption by residential sector in urban area is quite high as compared to rural sector. Direct and total energy distribution pattern is significantly different among rich and poor, owing to the difference in their lifestyles. Policy measures to promote energy efficiency through economic and technological interventions are discussed in this context.


Energy intensity Residential sector Energy distribution Energy input–output analysis Energy inequality 



The author is grateful to Prof. Ramprasad Sengupta, Professor Emeritus of Economics, Centre for Economic Studies and Planning, JNU, for his invaluable suggestions and guidance for the study. The author also wants to express her sincere thanks to Prof. Kakali Mukhopadhyay, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, for her insightful inputs, suggestions, and support in finalizing the paper. The author also wants to extend her gratitude to the anonymous reviewer for comments on an earlier draft of the paper. The author is grateful to IORA and Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune, for organizing the conference.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Economic GrowthNew DelhiIndia

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