Treatment and Recycling of Wastewater from Pulp and Paper Mill

  • Ankit Gupta
  • Rasna Gupta
Part of the Applied Environmental Science and Engineering for a Sustainable Future book series (AESE)


Paper and pulp industry is water intensive and has a greater impact on aquatic, surrounding environment and public health. Minimum fresh water usage and emphasis on waste-water recycling/management are key factors for the growth of this industry. Concentration of impurities and toxic substances in processed water mainly limits recycling benefits because it adversely affects processes, equipments and paper quality. Organic wastes are mostly processed through biodegradation and bioremediation using anaerobic digestion (methane production) followed by aerobic digestion (inducing sludge processing). Although, biological processing is economical and eco-friendly but treatment of wastes including non-biodegradable recalcitrant compounds mostly limits its broad application. Therefore, many other innovative approaches have been exploited to tackle this problem. Advanced oxidation process (AOP), novel biodegradable polymeric flocculants, electrocoagulation and photocatalysis etc. are used as alternative ways to facilitate detoxification and recycling. In this chapter, we emphasised and provided an in-depth knowledge about the various wastewater treatment strategies linked to paper and pulp industry.


Wastewater Pulping Pulp and paper waste Water recycling Recalcitrant 


  1. Ahmad H, Ahmad FF, Chia YL et al (2011) Lignocellulolytic enzymes produced by tropical white rot fungi during biopulping of Acacia mangium wood chips. J Biochem Technol 3:245–250Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad J, Abdullah SRS, Hassan HB, Rahman RAA, Idris M (2017) Screening of tropical native aquatic plants for polishing pulp and paper mill final effluent. Malays J Anal Sci 21:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander M (1999) Biodegradation and bioremediation, 2nd edn. Academic, San Diego ISBN: 978012049861, p 453Google Scholar
  4. Anuranjana Jaya JG, Vijayan N (2016) Microbial degradation and nutrient optimization of pulp and paper industry waste water. Int Res J Eng Technol 3:1919–1923Google Scholar
  5. Bajpai P (1999) Application of enzymes in the pulp and paper industry. Biotechnol Prog 15:147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barapatre A, Jha H (2016) Decolourization and biological treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent by lignin-degrading fungus Aspergillus flavus strain F10. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 5:19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bennett JW, Lasure LL (1991) More gene manipulations in fungi. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhardwaj NK, Bajpai P, Bajpai PK (1996) Use of enzymes in modification of fibres for improved beat ability. J Biotechnol 51:21–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhattacharjee S, Bhattacharjee C, Datta S (2006) Studies on the fractionation of β-lactoglobulin from casein whey using ultrafiltration and ion-exchange membrane chromatography. J Membr Science 275:141–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown JF, Wanger RE, Feng H et al (1987) Environmental dechlorination of PCBs. Environ Toxicol Chem 6:579–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buswell JA, Odier E (1987) Lignin biodegradation. CRC Crit Rev Biotechnol 6:1–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chandra R, Bharagava RN (2013) Bacterial degradation of synthetic and kraft lignin by axenic and mixed culture and their metabolic products. J Environ Biol 34:991–999Google Scholar
  13. Chandra R, Raj A, Purohit HJ et al (2007) Characterisation and optimisation of three potential aerobic bacterial strains for kraft lignin degradation from pulp paper waste. Chemosphere 67:839–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chrost RJ, Siuda W (2002) Ecology of microbial enzymes in lake ecosystems. In: Burns RG, Dick RF (eds) Enzymes in the environment: activity, ecology and applications. CRC Press, New York, pp 35–72Google Scholar
  15. Covinich LG, Bengoechea DI, Fenoglio RJ et al (2014) Advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment in the pulp and paper industry: a review. Am J Environ Eng 4:56–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. D’Annibale A, Ricci M, Quaratino D et al (2004) Panus tigrinus efficiently removes phenols, color and organic load from olive-mill wastewater. Res Microbiol 155:596–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dilek FB, Gokcay CF (1994) Treatment of effluents from hemp-based pulp and paper industry: I e waste characterization and physico-chemical treatability, Proceedings of the IAWQ International Specialized Conference on Pretreatment of Industrial Wastewaters. Pergamon Press, Athens, pp 161–163Google Scholar
  18. D'Souza DT, Tiwari R, Sah AK et al (2006) Enhanced production of laccase by a marine fungus during treatment of coloured effluents and synthetic dyes. Enzyme Microb Technol 38:504–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ekendahl S (2015) Algae culturing at pulp- and paper industries for sustainable production of bio-oil. Project Rep 66:1–55Google Scholar
  20. Eriksson KEL, Blanchette RA, Ander P (1990) Microbial and enzymatic degradation of wood components. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fabienne M (2001) Pectin methyl esterases: cell wall enzymes with important roles in plant physiology. Trends Plant Sci 6:414–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Farmer AM (1990) The effect of lake acidification on aquatic macrophytes-a review. Environ Pollut 65:219–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ferdowshi Z (2013) Screening of fresh water microalgae and Swedish pulp and paper mill waste waters with the focus on high algal biomass production. Master of Science ThesisGoogle Scholar
  24. Fukunaga N, Kita Y (1990) Elimination of ink from reclaimed paper. Jpn Pat 683:2–80Google Scholar
  25. Gantar M, Obreht Z, Dalmacija B (1991) Nutrient removal and algae succession during the growth of Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda on swine wastewater. Bioresour Technol 36:167–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gauthier F, Neufeld JD, Driscoll BT (2000) Coliform bacteria and nitrogen fixation in pulp and paper mill effluent treatment systems. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:5155–5160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Godden B, Ball AS, Helvenstein P (1992) Towards elucidation of lignin degradation pathway in actinomycetes. J Gen Microbiol 138:2441–2448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gomes JFS, Queiroz EM, Pessoa FLP (2007) Design procedure for water/wastewater minimization: single contaminant. J Clean Prod 15:474–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gonzalez MP, Siso MIG, Murado MA et al (1992) Depuration and valuation of mussel-processing wastes: characterization of amylolytic postincubates from different species grown on an effluent. Bioresour Technol 42:133–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Guest RK, Smith DW (2002) A potential new role for fungi in a wastewater MBR biological nitrogen reduction system. J Environ Eng Sci 1:433–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gupta SK, Rao PVSS (1980) Treatment of urea by algae, activated sludge and flocculation algal bacterial system – a comparative study. Indian J Environ Health 22:103–112Google Scholar
  32. Gurumoorthy P, Saravanan A (2016) Biofuel production from marine microalgae using paper and pulp industry waste water. Int J Chem Sci 14:3249–3255Google Scholar
  33. Guy Yare JA, Lucrelk M, Sakaguchi H (1990) Removal of ink from recycled paper. Jap Pat 150:984–990Google Scholar
  34. Hogenkamp H (1999) Flotation: the solution in handling effluent discharge. Pap Asia 15:16–18Google Scholar
  35. Hong Y, Dashtban M, Chen S et al (2015) Lignin in paper mill sludge is degraded by white-rot fungi in submerged fermentation. J Microb Biochem Technol 7:177–181Google Scholar
  36. Hooda R, Bhardwaj NK, Singh P (2015) Screening and identification of ligninolytic bacteria for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent. Water Air Soil Pollut 226:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hossain K, Rao AR (2014) Environmental change and it’s affect. Eur J Sustain Dev 3:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jaouani A, Guillen F, Penninckx MJ et al (2005) Role of Pycnoporus coccineus laccase in the degradation of aromatic compounds in olive oil mill wastewater. Enzym Microb Technol 36:478–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jerusik RJ (2010) Fungi and paper manufacture. Fungal Biol Rev 24:68–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jim F, Reyes S (2006) Anaerobic granular sludge bed reactor technology. University of Arizona, Tucson, Archived from the original on 2006Google Scholar
  41. Kamali M, Khodaparast Z (2015) Review on recent developments on pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 114:326–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Karrasch B, Parra O, Cid H et al (2006) Effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on the microplankton and microbial self-purification capabilities of the Bibyo River. Chile Sci Total Environ 359:194–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kibblewhite RP, Wong KKY (1999) Modification of a commercial radiata pine kraft pulp using carbohydrate degrading enzymes. Appita J 52:300–311Google Scholar
  44. Kirk TK, Farrell RL (1987) Enzymatic combustion: the microbial degradation of lignin. Annu Rev Microbiol 41:465–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kishimoto N, Nakagawa T, Okada H et al (2010) Treatment of paper and pulp mill wastewater by ozonation combined with electrolysis. J Water Environ Technol 8:99–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kreetachat T, Chaisan O, Vaithanomsat P (2016) Decolorization of pulp and paper mill effluents using wood rotting Fungus Fibrodontia sp. RCK783S. Int J Environ Sci Dev 7:321–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kshirsagar AD (2013) Bioremediation of wastewater by using microalgae: an experimental study. Int J Life Sci Pharma Res 2:340–346Google Scholar
  48. Kulikowska D, Gusiatin ZM, Bułkowska K et al (2015) Feasibility of using humic substances from compost to remove heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) from contaminated soil aged for different periods of time. J Hazard Mater 300:882–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kumar V, Chopra AK (2016) Reduction of pollution load of paper mill effluent by phytoremediation technique using water caltrop (Trapa natans L.). Cogen Environ Sci 2:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kumar V, Dhall P, Naithani S et al (2014) Biological approach for the treatment of pulp and paper industry effluent in sequence batch reactor. J Bioremed Biodegr 5:1–10Google Scholar
  51. Kumar S, Saha T, Sharma S (2015) Treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents using novel biodegradable polymeric flocculants based on anionic polysaccharides: a new way to treat the waste water. Int Res J Eng Technol 2:1415–1428Google Scholar
  52. Kunikane S, Kaneko M, Maehara R (1984) Growth and nutrient uptake of green alga, Scenedesmus dimorphus, under a wide range of nitrogen-phosphorus ratio (I): experimental study. Water Res 18:1299–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Laitinen N, Kulovaara M, Levänen E et al (2002) Ultrafiltration of stone cutting mine waste water with ceramic membranes-a case study. Desalination 149:121–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lakshmi KS, Sailaja VH, Reddy MA (2017) Phytoremediation - a promising technique in waste water treatment. Int J Sci Res Manage 5:5480–5489Google Scholar
  55. Lehtinen K (2004) Relationship of the technical development of pulping and bleaching to effluent quality and aquatic toxicity. Destech Publications, LancasterGoogle Scholar
  56. Lettinga G, Huishoff Pol LW (1991) UASB process design for various types of waste water. Water Sci Technol 24:87–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Luisa M, Goncalves FC, Steiner W (1996) Purification and characterisation of laccase from a newly isolated wood-decaying fungus: enzymes for pulp and paper processing. Am Chem Soc 20:258–263Google Scholar
  58. Machmud MN, Fadi F, Fuadi Z et al (2014) Alternative fiber sources from Gracilaria Sp and Eucheuma Cottonii for papermaking. Int J Sci Eng 6:1–10Google Scholar
  59. Marquina D (2005) Biomass production of cellulolytic fungi for degradation of waste lignocellulosics. Univ Complutense Madrid 1:41–47Google Scholar
  60. Mehta J, Sharma P, Yadav A (2014) Screening and identification of bacterial strains for removal of COD from pulp and paper mill effluent. Adv Life Sci Health 1:34–42Google Scholar
  61. Micheli F (2001) Pectin methylesterases: cell wall enzymes with important roles in plant physiology. Trends Plant Sci 9:414–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mulligan CN (2002) Environmental biotreatment: technologies for air, water, soil, and waste. ABS Consulting/Government Institutes, Rockville, p 395 ISBN-13: 978-0865878907Google Scholar
  63. Munkittrick KR, Servos MR, Carey JH et al (1997) Environmental impacts of pulp and paper wastewater: evidence for a reduction in environmental effects at North American pulp mills since 1992. Water Sci Technol 35:329–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nagarathnamma R, Bajpai P, Bajpai PK (1999) Studies on decolourization, degradation and detoxification of chlorinated lignin compounds in kraft beaching effluents by Ceriporiopsis subyermispora. Process Biochem 34:939–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nemade PD, Kumar S, Louis D et al (2003) Application of anaerobic technology for biomethanation of paper and pulp mill effluent – an insight. Environ Pollut Control 6:6–15Google Scholar
  66. Nilsson T Asserson A (1969) Treating wood chips with fungi to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. US Patent 3:486Google Scholar
  67. Nomura Y, Shoji S (1988) Digestion of pulp (Honshu Paper Mfg. Co. Ltd.) Jpn Pat 59:494–498Google Scholar
  68. Ordaz-Diaz LA, Rojas-Contreras JA, Rutiaga-Quinones OM et al (2014) Microorganism degradation efficiency in BOD analysis formulating a specific microbial consortium in a pulp and paper mill effluent. Biol Resour 9:7189–7197Google Scholar
  69. Pawar SN, Hussain M (2016) Photo induced catalytic treatment of pulp and paper industry wastewater. Int J Innov Eng Technol 7:494–498Google Scholar
  70. Prasongsuk S, Lotrakul P, Imai T, Punnapayak H (2009) Decolourization of pulp millwastewater using thermotolerant white rot fungi. Sci Asia 35:37–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Queiroz MI, Lopes EJ, Zepka LQ et al (2007) The kinetics of the removal of nitrogen and organic matter from parboiled rice effluent by cyanobacteria in a stirred batch reactor. Bioresour Technol 98:2163–2169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ragunathan R, Swaminathan K (2004) Biological treatment of a pulp and paper industry effluent by Pleurotus spp. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 20:289–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Raj A, Kumar S, Haq I et al (2014) Bioremediation and toxicity reduction in pulp and paper mill effluent by newly isolated ligninolytic Paenibacillus sp. Eco Eng 71:355–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rao HP, Kumar RR, Raghavan BG et al (2011) Application of phycoremediation technology in the treatment of wastewater from a leather-processing chemical manufacturing facility. Water Soil Air 37:7–14Google Scholar
  75. Reid ID, Paice MG (1998) Effects of manganese peroxidase on residual lignin of softwood kraft pulp. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:2273–2274Google Scholar
  76. Rose GR, St. John MR (1987) Flocculation in encyclopaedia of polymer science and engineering, vol 7. Wiley, New York, p 211Google Scholar
  77. Sandstrom O, Neuman E (2003) Long-term development in a Baltic fish community exposed to bleached pulp mill effluent. Aqua Ecol 37:267–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Santos Ramos WDL, Tatyana P, Chairez I et al (2009) Remediation of lignin and its derivatives from pulp and paper industry wastewater by the combination of chemical precipitation and ozonation. J Haz Mater 169(1–3):428–234. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Saraswathi R, Saseetharan MK (2010) Investigation on microorganisms and their degradation efficiency in paper and pulp mill effluent. J Water Resour Prot 2:660–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Saritha V, Maruthi YA, Mukkanti K (2010) Decolourization of higher concentrations of industry effluent by Fomes lividus. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 19:591–593Google Scholar
  81. Satyawali Y, Balakrishnan M (2007) Wastewater treatment in molasses-based alcohol distilleries for COD and color removal: a review. J Environ Manag 86:481–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Selvam K, Shanmuga Priya M (2013) Biological treatment of pulp and paper industry effluent by white rot fungi Schizophyllum commune and Lenzites eximia. Int J Pharm Biol Arch 3:121–126Google Scholar
  83. Selvam K, Swaminathan K, Hoon Song M et al (2002) Biological treatment of a pulp and paper industry effluent by Fomes lividus and Trametes versicolor. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 18:523–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Senthilkumar S, Perumalsamy M, Prabhu HJ (2014) Decolourization potential of white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium on synthetic dye bath effluent containing Amido black 10B. J Saudi Chem Soc 18:845–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Seo JK, Park TS, Kwon IH et al (2013) Characterization of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes of Bacillus licheniformis JK7 isolated from the rumen of a native korean goat. Asian-Australas J Ani Sci 26:50–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Shanthi J, Krubakaran CTB, Balagurunathan R (2012) Characterization and isolation of paper mill effluent degrading microorganisms. J Chem Pharm Res 4:4436–4439Google Scholar
  87. Sharma D (2014) Treatment of pulp and paper effluent by electrocoagulation. Int J Chem Technol Res 6:860–870Google Scholar
  88. Sharma N, Gupta VC (2012) Batch biodegradation of phenol of paper and pulp effluent by Aspergillus Niger. Int Chem Eng Appl 3:182–186Google Scholar
  89. Sharma R, Chandra S, Singh A et al (2014) Degradation of pulp and paper mill effluents. IIOAB J 5:6–12Google Scholar
  90. Sharyo M, Sakaguchi H (1990) Deinking used paper with incorporation of lipase. Jap Pat 2:160–168Google Scholar
  91. Sigoillot C, Record E, Belle V et al (2004) Natural and recombinant fungal laccases for paper pulp bleaching. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 64:346–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Singh P, Thakur S (2004) Removal of color and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent by microorganism in two step bioreactor. J Sci Ind Res 63:944–948Google Scholar
  93. Singhal V, Kumar A, Rai JPN (2003) Phytoremediation of pulp and paper mill and distillery effluents by channel grass (Vallisneria spiralis). J Sci Ind Res 62:319–328Google Scholar
  94. Springer AM (2000) Industrial environmental control: pulp and paper industry, 3rd edn. TAPPI Press, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  95. Suutarinen J, Honkapää K, Heiniö R et al (2002) Modeling of calcium chloride and pectin methylesterase prefreezing treatments of strawberries and jams. J Food Sci 67:1240–1248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sukumaran, Dipu (2013) Phytoremediation of heavy metals from industrial effluent using constructed wetland technology. Appl Eco Environ Sci 5:92–97Google Scholar
  97. Tenno R, Paulapuro H (1999) Removal of dissolved organic compounds from paper machine whitewater by membrane bioreactors: a comparative analysis. Espoo, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  98. Thompson RC, Olsen Y, Mitchell RP et al (2004) Lost at sea: where is all the plastic? Science 304:838–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tickle A, Malcolm F, Graham D (1995) Acid rain and natural conservation in Europe: a preliminary study of areas at risk from acidification. WWF International, MorgesGoogle Scholar
  100. Tiedje JM, Quensen JF, Chee-Sanford et al (1993) Microbial reductive dechlorination of PCBs. Biodegradation 4:231–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tyagi S, Kumar V, Singh J et al (2014) Bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent by dominant aboriginal microbes and their consortium. Int J Environ Res 8:561–568Google Scholar
  102. Usha R, Vasavi A, Thishya K, Rani SJ, Supraja P (2011) Phytoextraction of lead from industrial effluents by sunflower (Helianthus Annuus. L). Rasayan J Chem 4:8–12Google Scholar
  103. Van den Heuvel MR, Ellis RJ (2002) Timing of exposure to a pulp and paper effluent influences the manifestation of reproductive effects in rainbow trout. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:2338–2347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Verma VK, Gupta RK, Rai JPN (2005) Biosorption of Pb and Zn from pulp and paper industry effluents by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). J Sci Ind Res 64:778–781Google Scholar
  105. Wong SS, Teng TT, Ahmad AL et al (2006) Treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater by polyacrylamide (PAM) in polymer induced flocculation. J Hazard Mater 135:378–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wu J, Xiao Y, Yu H (2005) Degradation of lignin in pulp mill wastewaters by white-rot fungi on biofilm. Bioresour Technol 96:1357–1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Xiang Z, Gao W, Chen L et al (2016) A comparison of cellulose nanofibrils produced from Cladophora glomerata algae and bleached eucalyptus pulp. Cellulose 23:493–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Yamuna M, Selvam K, Meenakshi R (2016) Treatment of a pulp and paper industry effluent by Daldenia concentrica, Lepiota sp. and Trametes serialis -a biological approach. Int J Sci Eng Res 7:1112–1119Google Scholar
  109. Yerkes WD (1968) Process for the digestion of cellulosic materials by enzymatic action of Trametes suaveolens. United States Patent 3:406–489Google Scholar
  110. Zabel RA, Morrell JJ (1992) Wood microbiology: decay and its prevention. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  111. Zheng S, Yang M, Yang Z (2005) Biomass production of yeast isolated from salad oil manufacturing wastewater. Bioresour Technol 96:1183–1187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zhu N (2006) Composting of high moisture content swine manure with corncob in a pilot-scale aerated static bin system. Bioresour Technol 97:1870–1875CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ankit Gupta
    • 1
  • Rasna Gupta
    • 2
  1. 1.National Institute of ImmunologyNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryDr. Rammanohar Lohia Avadh UniversityFaizabadIndia

Personalised recommendations