Freshwater is an imperative normal asset that will keep on being sustainable as long as it is well managed. In many parts of the world, rapid industrial development have prompted to an intensive and still increasing utilization of water resources. Industries are one of the most important pollution sources around the world. The discharge of untreated or improperly treated wastewaters from industries into water bodies may contain very diverse groups of hazardous pollutants depending on the nature of industry. The industrial waste waters may have undesirable color, odour, acids, alkalies, organic matters, toxic chemical contents, heavy metals, pesticides, oils, high biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS) etc. These pollutants may pose a serious threat to all life forms. It is, therefore, necessary to treat the industrial waste water prior to their disposal into water bodies. The conventional industrial waste water treatment processes such as precipitation, adsorption, oxidation, filtration etc. have long been established in removing many hazardous pollutants but these methods have their own limitations. These methods are expensive, and require complex processes and maintenance. Biological treatment process is an important and integral part of any wastewater treatment plant. Different taxonomic group of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and algae) and plants play a major role in the biological treatment of industrial wastewater. The fresh water demand in current and future prospects could be met by improving the efficiency of water usage and demand management. The recycling and reuse of industrial wastewater is emerging as potential source for demand management and water shortage after essential treatment.