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Stroke Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption

  • Amit Kumar Tripathi
  • Nirav Dhanesha
  • Santosh Kumar
Chapter

Abstract

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is highly ultra-synchronized, structural and biochemical barrier between the peripheral blood circulation and the central nervous system (CNS) coordinate entry of blood-borne entities into the CNS. BBB anatomy is comprised of microvascular endothelium, pericytes, astrocytes and neuronal cells that constitute a neurovascular unit (NVU), participating a crucial role in proper functioning of the CNS. Every cell of NVU forms an indispensable contribution to BBB integrity. BBB functions are mainly controlled by tight and adherens junctional (TJ and AJ) protein complexes. These restrictive angioarchitectures at BBB reduce the paracellular diffusion of molecules, whereas carrier proteins determine which substance can cross the transcellular barrier. Under normal condition, BBB prevents extravasation of blood-borne cell, solute, ions and molecules. However, its disruption can lead to change in paracellular and transcellular permeability and extravasation of leukocytes into brain tissue, contributing oedema formation in neuropathological disorder including brain stroke. This chapter emphasized recently gained information on BBB anatomy and its neuropathogenetic alteration in an ischemic cerebral injury.

Keywords

Ischemic stroke BBB Endothelium Neurovascular unit Occludin 

Abbreviations

AJ

Adherens junction

BBB

Blood-brain barrier

CNS

Central nervous system

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

JAM

Junctional adhesion molecule

MAGUK

Membrane-associated guanylate kinase

MS

Multiple sclerosis

NMO

Neuromyelitis optica

NPSLE

Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus

NVU

Neurovascular unit

TBI

Traumatic brain injury

TEMPOL

4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl

TJ

Tight junction

Notes

Acknowledgement

AKT gratefully acknowledges the financial support provided by the Department of Science and Technology-Science Engineering Research Board (PDF/2016/002996/LS), New Delhi, India, and Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh for providing facility and support.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amit Kumar Tripathi
    • 1
  • Nirav Dhanesha
    • 2
  • Santosh Kumar
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Biomedical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University)VaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

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