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Post-Stroke Treatment Strategies, Management, and Rehabilitation: Where We Stand?

  • Mallikarjuna Rao Gedda
  • Surya Prakash Pandey
  • Kulsoom Zahra
  • Prasoon Madhukar
  • Abhishek Pathak
Chapter

Abstract

Stroke is a medical condition occurring due to the deprivation of blood supply temporarily/permanently to specific area of the brain leading to hypoxia to the brain cells, which eventually causes mortality of the patients. Stroke is categorized into three different types, i.e., transient ischemic attack (shows stroke-like symptoms), acute ischemic strokes (hiccups, nausea, troubles in walking and speaking, numbness of the face, arm, and leg mainly on one side of the body), and hemorrhagic strokes (loss of consciousness and balance, nausea, vomiting, seizures, dizziness). Over the past 20 years, the inhospital and post-discharge management for stroke has been deeply transformed. Their early detection and inhospital therapies can deteriorate short- and long-term outcomes of strokes. Inhospital treatments include thrombolysis, aspirin treatment, antithrombotic therapy, therapeutic hypothermia, blood pressure management, antiplatelet strategies, and surgery for cerebral edema. There are several important aspects which are discussed below in this chapter that should be taken care in order to decrease mortality rate in stroke patients.

Keywords

Stroke Acute ischemic strokes Transient ischemic attack Cerebral edema Treatments 

Abbreviations

AA

Arachidonic acid

ACE

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate

AF

Atrial fibrillation

AIS

Acute ischemic strokes

APA

Antiplatelet agent

APP

Amyloid precursor protein

ASA

American Stroke Association

BBB

Blood-brain barrier

BP

Blood pressure

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CBF

Cerebral blood flow

CNS

Central nervous system

COX

Cyclooxygenase

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

DAPT

Dual antiplatelet therapy

GP

Glycoprotein

HS

Hemorrhagic strokes

I/R

Ischemia/reperfusion

MI

Myocardial infarction

NOACs

Novel oral anticoagulants

PDE

Phosphodiesterase

PROACT II

Prolyse in acute cerebral thromboembolism II

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

rtPA

Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator

T×A2

Thromboxane A2

TCM

Traditional Chinese medicine

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mallikarjuna Rao Gedda
    • 1
  • Surya Prakash Pandey
    • 2
  • Kulsoom Zahra
    • 1
  • Prasoon Madhukar
    • 2
  • Abhishek Pathak
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, Institute of ScienceBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Zoology, Institute of ScienceBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Neurology, Institute of Medical SciencesBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

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