Traumatic Optic Neuropathy

  • Yun Zhang
  • Meixia Zhang
Part of the Ocular Trauma book series (OCTRA)


Traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) refers to any injury to the optic nerve secondary to trauma. Injury may be direct or indirect and visual loss may be partial or complete. Direct TON results from an anatomical nerve disruption by penetrating orbital trauma. Indirect injury results from transmission of forces to the nerve. The prognostic value in knowing that an injury was direct or indirect is unclear, and the mechanism of injury is not understood. Also, there are no confirmed protocols for prevention, mitigation, or treatment. Current therapeutic modalities include observation alone, systemic high-dose corticosteroid administration, and/or surgical optic nerve decompression. This chapter includes four cases with brief descriptions, illustrating figures and personal tips and pearls, aiming to provide a guide of diagnosis and management of traumatic optic neuropathy.


Traumatic optic neuropathy 


  1. 1.
    Kline LB, Morawetz RB, Swaid SN. Indirect injury of the optic nerve. Neurosurgery. 1984;14(6):756–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Russell WR. Injury to cranial nerves including the optic nerves and chiasma. In: Brock S, editor. Injuries of the skull, brain and spinal cord. London: Bailliere; 1940. p. 113–22.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Robert ASMD. Sphenoethmoid approach to the optic nerve. Laryngoscope. 1981;91(2):184–96.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dalma-Weiszhausz J, et al. Retinal vascular occlusion following ocular contusion. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005;243(5):406–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Reagan DS, Grundberg AB, Reagan JM. Digital artery damage associated with closed crush injuries. J Hand Surg Br Eur Vol. 2002;27(4):374–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Scheerlinck T, Brande PVD. Posttraumatic intima dissection and thrombosis of the external iliac artery in a sportsman. Eur J Vasc Surg. 1994;8(5):645–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yun Zhang
    • 1
  • Meixia Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyWest China Hospital, Sichuan UniversityChengduChina

Personalised recommendations