Advertisement

Using Emplaced Ethnography, Mobility, and Listening to Research Memory

  • Danielle DrozdzewskiEmail author
  • Carolyn Birdsall
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter explores two examples of collective national remembrance that occur in the Netherlands on 4 and 5 May annually. A visual and sound-based ethnography was used to better understand the relationship between the practice of commemoration and its affect (Anderson 2004). On 4 May, the sounds of a silence march—through the streets of Amsterdam to the Dam Square—were recorded and complimented by video grabs of the march’s participants and onlookers. On 5 May, sounds and atmospheres (cf. Sumartojo 2015) were recorded at one of Holland’s biggest ‘freedom festivals’, named Bevrijdingspop, in Haarlem. We highlight how by paying more attention to the sounds (and images) rather than solely to text, we better understood the role they played in the co-constitution of commemorative spaces.

References

  1. Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, B. (2004). Recorded music and practices of remembering. Social and Cultural Geography, 5(1), 3–21.Google Scholar
  3. Atkinson, D. (2007). Kitsch geographies and the everyday spaces of social memory. Environment and Planning A, 39, 521.Google Scholar
  4. Back, L., & Bull, M. (2003). The auditory culture reader. Oxford/New York: Berg.Google Scholar
  5. Bandt, R., Duffy, M., & MacKinnon, D. (2009). Hearing places: Sound, place, time and culture. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.Google Scholar
  6. Birdsall, C. J. (2016). Sound memory: A critical concept for researching memories of conflict and war. In D. Drozdzewski, S. De Nardi, & E. Waterton (Eds.), Memory, place and identity: Commemoration and remembrance of war and conflict (pp. 111–129). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Birdsall, C. J., & Drozdzewski, D. (2018). Capturing commemoration: Using mobile recordings within memory research. Mobile Media & Communication, 6(2), 266–284.Google Scholar
  8. Bull, M. (2000). Sounding out the city: Personal stereos and the management of everyday life. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  9. Bull, M. (2007). Sound moves: iPod culture and urban experience. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Butler, T. (2007). Memoryscape: How audio walks can deepen our sense of place by integrating art, oral history and cultural geography. Geography Compass, 1(3), 360–372.Google Scholar
  11. Coffey, A. (1999). Ethnographic self. New Delhi: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  12. Connell, J., & Gibson, C. (2003). Sound tracks: Popular music, identity, and place. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Degen, M. M., & Rose, G. (2012). The sensory experiencing of urban design: The role of walking and perceptual memory. Urban Studies, 49, 3271–3287.Google Scholar
  14. Dewulf, J. (2012). Amsterdam memorials, multiculturalism, and the debate on Dutch identity. In M. de Waard (Ed.), Imagining global Amsterdam: History, culture and geography in a world city Amsterdam (pp. 239–254). The Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Drozdzewski, D. (2016). Can Anzac sit comfortably within Australia’s multiculturalism? Australian Geographer, 47(1), 3–10.Google Scholar
  16. Drozdzewski, D., De Nardi, S., & Waterton, E. (2016). Geographies of memory, place and identity: Intersections in remembering war and conflict. Geography Compass, 10, 447–456.Google Scholar
  17. Duffy, M., & Waitt, G. (2011). Sound diaries: A method of listening to place. Aether, 7, 119–136.Google Scholar
  18. Duindam, D. (2012). Stage, performance, media event: The National Commemoration of the Second World War in the Netherlands. In D. Agostinho, E. Antz, & C. Ferreira (Eds.), Panic and mourning: The cultural work of trauma (pp. 247–261). Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  19. Duindam, D. (2016). Signs of the shoah: The Hollandsche Schouwburg as a site of memory. PhD dissertation, University of Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  20. Edensor, T. (2010). Walking in rhythms: Place, regulation, style and the flow of experience. Visual Studies, 25(1), 69–79.Google Scholar
  21. Edensor, T. (2012). Illuminated atmospheres: Anticipating and reproducing the flow of affective experience in Blackpool. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 30, 1103–1122.Google Scholar
  22. Frith, J., & Kalin, J. (2016). Here, I used to be: Mobile media and practices of place-based digital memory. Space and Culture, 19(1), 43–55.Google Scholar
  23. Gallagher, M. (2014). Sounding ruins: Reflections on the production of an ‘Audio drift’. Cultural Geographies, 22(3), 467–485.Google Scholar
  24. Ginkel, R van. (2011). Rondom de stilte: Hedenkingscultuur in Nederland. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker.Google Scholar
  25. Ingold, T. (2000). The perception of the environment: Essays on livelihood, dwelling and skill. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Ingold, T., & Vergunst, J. L. (2008). Introduction. In J. L. Vergunst & T. Ingold (Eds.), Ways of walking: Ethnography and practice on foot (pp. 1–20). Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  27. Kanngieser, A. (2012). A sonic geography of voice: Towards an affective politics. Progress in Human Geography, 36(3), 336–353.Google Scholar
  28. Kearns, R. (2010). Seeing with clarity: Undertaking observational research. In I. Hay (Ed.), Qualitative research methods in human geography (3rd ed., pp. 241–285). Singapore: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Kusenbach, M. (2003). Street phenomenology: The go-along as ethnographic research tool. Ethnography, 4(3), 455–485.Google Scholar
  30. Marshall, D. (2004). Making sense of remembrance. Social and Cultural Geography, 5(1), 37–55.Google Scholar
  31. McCartney, A. (2014). Soundwalking: Creating moving environmental sound narratives. In S. Gopinath & J. Stanyek (Eds.), The oxford handbook of mobile music studies (Vol. 2, pp. 212–237). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Meeuse, A., & Bouhuys, M. (Eds.). (2000). Vrijheid geef je door. Amsterdam: Nationaal Comité 4 en 5 Mei.Google Scholar
  33. Mills, S. (2005). Applying auditory archaeology to historic landscape characterisation. A pilot project in the former mining landscape of Geevor and Levant mines, West Penrith, Cornwall. A report for English Heritage (Unpublished report for English Heritage).Google Scholar
  34. O’Connor, P. (2008). The sound of silence: Valuing acoustics in heritage conservation. Geographical Research, 46(3), 361–373.Google Scholar
  35. O’Neill, M., & Hubbard, P. (2010). Walking, sensing, belonging: Ethno-mimesis as performative praxis. Visual Studies, 25(1), 46–58.Google Scholar
  36. Pink, S. (2009). Doing sensory ethnography. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  37. Pinkerton, A., & Dodds, K. (2009). Radio geopolitics: Broadcasting, listening and the struggle for acoustic spaces. Progress in Human Geography, 33(1), 10–27.Google Scholar
  38. Raaijmakers, I. (2014). De Stilte en de Storm: 4 en 5 Mei sinds 1945 [The silence and the storm: May 4 and 5 since 1945] (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  39. Reeves, A. (2017). Mobilising bodies, narrating security: Tourist choreographies at Jerusalem’s Holocaust History Museum. Mobilities., earlyview, 1–15.Google Scholar
  40. Revill, G. (2016). How is space made in sound? Spatial mediation, critical phenomenology and the political agency of sound. Progress in Human Geography, 40(2), 240–256.Google Scholar
  41. Schafer, R. M. (1994). The soundscape: Our sonic environment and the tuning of the world. Rochester: Destiny.Google Scholar
  42. Smith, S. J. (2000). Performing the (sound)world. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 18(5), 615–637.Google Scholar
  43. Solnit, R. (2001). Wanderlust: A history of walking. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  44. Sonic Visualiser. (2017). [Computer software]. London: Centre for Digital Music, Queen Mary, University of London. Retrieved from http://www.sonicvisualiser.org/
  45. Stevenson, A. (2014). We came here to remember: Using participatory sensory ethnography to explore memory as emplaced, embodied practice. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 11(4), 335–349.Google Scholar
  46. Sumartojo, S. (2015). On atmosphere and darkness at Australia’s Anzac Day Dawn Service. Visual Communication, 14, 267–288.Google Scholar
  47. Sumartojo, S. (2016). Commemorative atmospheres: Memorial sites, collective events and the experience of national identity. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographer, 41(4), 541–553.Google Scholar
  48. Sumartojo, S. (forthcoming). Lieux de mémoire through the senses: Memory, state-sponsored history and sensory experience. In S. de Nardi, H. Orange, E. Koskinen-Koivisto, & S. High (Eds.), Routledge handbook of memory and place. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Sumartojo, S., & Pink, S. (2017). Empathetic visuality: GoPros and the video trace. In E. Gómez Cruz, S. Sumartojo, & S. Pink (Eds.), Refiguring techniques in digital visual research (pp. 39–50). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  50. Sumartojo, S., Lacey, J., & Hillary, F. (2017). Contain yourself: Technology, the city and atmospheric intervention. Media International Australia, 165(1), 90–102.Google Scholar
  51. Thompson, E. (2002). The soundscape of modernity: Architectural acoustics and the culture of listening in America, 1900–1944. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  52. Thulin, S. (2018). Sound maps matter: Expanding cartophony. Social & Cultural Geography, 19(2), 192–210.Google Scholar
  53. Vergunst, J. L., & Ingold, T. (2008). Ways of walking: Ethnography and practice on foot. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  54. Waldock, J. (2011). SOUNDMAPPING: Critiques and reflections on this new publicly engaging medium. Journal of Sonic Studies, 1(1). Online: http://journal.sonicstudies.org/vol01/nr01/a08
  55. Waterton, E., & Dittmer, J. (2014). The museum as assemblage: Bringing forth affect at the Australian War Memorial. Museum Management and Curatorship, 29(2), 122–139.Google Scholar
  56. Wilson, H. (2016). Sonic geographies, soundwalks and more-than-representational methods. In M. Bull & L. Back (Eds.), The auditory culture reader (pp. 163–172). London/New York: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  57. Wylie, J. (2005). A single day’s walking: Narrating self and landscape on the South West Coast Path. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 30, 234–247.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Stockholm UniversityStockholmSweden
  2. 2.University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations