Advertisement

Chemical Control of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), the Principal Vector of Bancroftian Filariasis, with Emphasis on Resistance Development Against Insecticides in India

  • T. Mariappan
  • B. K. Tyagi
Chapter

Abstract

Lymphatic filariasis is under the era of elimination from many countries including India. India has contributed towards the control of disease through various methods including chemotherapy and vector control with main emphasis on larvicides against vectors. Several groups of larvicides including carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphorus and pyrethroids have been used against vector Culex quinquefasciatus for several decades, and the development of resistance to various compounds was documented in several published articles. However, the present review is aiming to highlight resistance development in Cx. quinquefasciatus against insecticides in India. Also the mosaic pattern of application of various insecticides, essential in order to delay the resistance against a particular compound, is emphasized upon. The in-depth review leads to conclude that not only the chemical insecticides but also other compounds, namely, biocides like plant extracts need to be used in a continuous process to reduce the vector population.

Notes

Acknowledgement

We wish to express our thanks to Shri. V. Rajamannar, Senior Technical staff, and Miss. S. Karthigai Selvi, Technical staff of CRME, for their technical assistance.

References

  1. Amalraj D, Vasuki V, Kalyanasundaram M, Tyagi BK, Das PK (1988) Laboratory and field evaluation of three insect regulators against mosquito vectors. Indian J Med Res 87:24–31.3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ansari MA, Razdan RK, Sreehari U (2005) Laboratory and field evaluation of Hilmilin against mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 21:432–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Batra CP, Mittal PK, Adak T, Ansari MA (2005) Efficacy of IGR compound Starycide 480SC (Triflumuron) against mosquito larvae in clear and polluted water. J Vect Borne Dis 42:109–116Google Scholar
  4. Bellinger RG (2011) Pesticide resistance Management. Available from: http://www.clemson.edu/extension/rowcrops/pest/files/2011pmhpest_resist_mgmt.pdf
  5. Brogdon WG (1989) Biochemical resistance detection: an alternative to bioassay. Parasitol Today 5:56–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cordón-Rosales C, Beach RF, Brogdon WG (1990) Field evaluation of methods for estimating carbamate resistance in Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes from a microplate assay for insensitive acetylcholine esterase. Bull WHO 68:323–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Das M, Srivastava BN, Rao CK, Thapar BR, Sharma GK (1987) Field trial of the effectiveness of indoor-spraying with pirimiphos-methyl emulsion for malaria control in a tribal area of Phulbani district, Orissa state, India. Med Vet Entomol 1:289–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Georghiou GP (1994) Principles of insecticide resistance management. Phytoprotection 75(4):51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gopalan N, Prakash S, Bhattacharya BK, OP A, Rao KM (1996) Development of malathion resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Diptera: Culicidae). Indian J Med Res 103:84–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hougard JM, Corbel V, N'Guessan R, Darriet F, Chandre F, Akogbeto M, Baldet T, Guillet P, Carnevale P, Traoré-Lamizana M (2003) Efficacy of mosquito nets treated with insecticide mixtures or mosaics against insecticide resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in cote d'Ivoire. Bull Entomol Res 93(6):491–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Howard J, Wall R (1995) The effects of triflumuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on the housefly Musca dornesfico. Bull Ent Res 85:71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. ICMR (1961). Assessment committee report of the assessment committee on National Filaria Control Programme (NFCP)Google Scholar
  13. Jambulingam P, Sadanandane C, Boopathi Doss PS, Subramanian S, Zaim M (2008) Field evaluation of an insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen, 0.5% GR against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of Bancroftian filariasis in Pondicherry, India. Acta Trop 107:20–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Karunamoorthi K, Sabesan S (2013) Insecticide resistance in insect vectors of disease with special reference to mosquitoes: a potential threat to global public health. Health Scope 2(1):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kumar K, Sharma AK, Kumar S, Patel S, Sarkar M, Chauhan LS (2011) Multiple insecticide resistance/susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus, principal vector of bancroftian filariasis from filaria endemic areas of northern India. Asian Pac J Trop Med 4(6):426–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Langley PA, Felton T, Oouchi H (1988) Juvenile hormone mimics as effective sterilants for the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsirans. Med Vet Entomol 2:29–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mariappan T (2007) Vector control in lymphatic filariasis elimination programme. Curr Sci 93(8):1061–1062Google Scholar
  18. Mukhopadhyay AK, Sinha SN, RL Y, Narasimham MV (1993) Susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus in Patna to insecticides. Indian J Pub Heal 37:57–60Google Scholar
  19. Mukhopadhyay AK, Patnaik SK, Babu PS (2006) Susceptibility status of some culicine mosquitoes to insecticides in Rajahmundry town of Andhra Pradesh, India. J Vector Borne Dis 43(1):39–41Google Scholar
  20. Mulla MS (1995) The future of insect growth regulators in vector control. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 11:269–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Poopathi S, Mani TR, RagunathaRao D, Baskaran G, Kabilan L (1999) Cross resistance to Bacillus sphaericus strains in Culex quinquefasciatus resistant to B.sphaericus 1593. M. South East Asian J Trop Med Public Health 30:477–481Google Scholar
  22. Raghavendra K, Subbarao SK (2002) Chemical insecticides in malaria vector control in India. ICMR Bull 32:93–99Google Scholar
  23. Rao DR, Mani TR, Rajendran R, Joseph AS, Gajanana A (1995) Development of a high level resistance to Bacillus sphaericus in a field population of Culex quinquefasciatus from Kochi, India. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 11:1–5.2Google Scholar
  24. Sadanandane C, Boopathi Doss PS, Jambulingam P (2012) Efficacy of three formulations of diflubenzuron, an insect growth regulator, against Culexquinquefasciatus Say, the vector of Bancroftian filariasis in India. Indian J Med Res 136:783–791PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Sarkar M, Bhattacharyya KI, Borkotoki A, Baruah I, Srivastava R (2009) Development of physiological resistance and its stage specificity in Culex quinquefasciatus after selection with deltamethrin in Assam, India. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 104673-677Google Scholar
  26. Sarkar M, Bhattacharyya IK, Borkotoki A, Goswami D, Rabha B, Baruah I et al (2009a) Insecticide resistance and detoxifying enzyme activity in the principal bancroftian filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus in north eastern India. Med Vet Entomol 23:122–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sarkar M, Borkotoki A, Baruah I, Bhattacharyya IK, Srivastava RB (2009b) Molecular analysis of knock down resistance (kdr) mutation and distribution of kdr genotypes in a wild population of Culex quinquefasciatus from India. Tropical Med Int Health 14(9):1097–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Singh D (1967) The Culex pipiens fatigans problem in South-East Asia with special reference to urbanization. Bull World Health Org 37(2):239–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Singh OP, Raghavendra K, Nanda N, Mittal PK, Subbarao SK (2002) Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles culicifacies in Surat district, Gujarat, West India. Curr Sci 82:547–550Google Scholar
  30. Suman DS, Parashar BD, Prakash S (2010a) Efficacy of various insect growth regulators on organophosphates resistant immatures of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from different geographical areas of India. J Entomol 7:33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Suman DS, Tikar SN, Parashar BD, Prakash S (2010b) Development of insecticide resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) from different locations in India. J Pest Sci 35(10):9–36Google Scholar
  32. Thavaselvam D, Kumar A, Sumodan PK (1993) Insecticide susceptibility status of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti in Panaji, Goa. Ind J Malariol 30:182Google Scholar
  33. Van Bortel W, Trung HD, Thuan le K, Sochantha T, Socheat D, Sumrandee C et al (2008) The insecticide resistance status of malaria vectors in the Mekong region. Malar J 7:102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Vatandoost H, Vaziri VM (2004) Larvicidal activity of a neem tree extract (Neemarin) against mosquito larvae in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Eastern Med Health J 10:573–581Google Scholar
  35. Vijayan VA, Sathish Kumar BY, Ganesh KN, Urmila J, Fakoorziba MR, Makkapati AK (2007) Efficacy of piperonyl butoxide as a synergist with deltamethrin on five species of mosquitoes. J Com Dis 39(3):159–163Google Scholar
  36. Wattal BL, Bhatnagar VN, Joshi GC (1975) Efficiency of different larvicides against Anopheles and Culicine mosquitoes in weekly application schedules. J Com Dis 7:358–368Google Scholar
  37. WHO (2001) Amount of poor-quality pesticides sold in developing countries alarmingly high [Media release]. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations/WHO, Rome/Geneva http://www.fao.org/waicent/ois/press_ne/presseng/2001/pren0105.htm Google Scholar
  38. World Health Organization (2003) Specifications and evaluations for public health pesticides. GenevaGoogle Scholar
  39. World Health Organization (2004) Global strategic framework for integrated vector management. WHO/CDS/CPE/PVC/2004.10Google Scholar
  40. Yebakima A, Raymond M, Marquine M, Pasteur N (1995a) Resistance to organophosphate insecticides in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus from Martinique. J Med Entomol 32:77–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yebakima A, Raymond M, Marquine M, Pasteur N (1995b) Resistance to organophosphate insecticides in Culex quinquefasciatus from Martinique. J Med Entomol 32:77–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Mariappan
    • 1
  • B. K. Tyagi
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Research in Medical Entomology (ICMR)MaduraiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental BiotechnologyBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirapalliIndia

Personalised recommendations