Integrated Vector Control for the Elimination of Bancroftian Filariasis in the Villages of Tirukoilur, South India
Integrated vector control (IVC) along with mass drug administration (MDA) was implemented in the filaria endemic villages of Tirukoilur, South India, for the elimination of bancroftian filariasis. The MDA was carried out by the state health machinery, including the 36 villages under study, which were clustered into three arms, viz. first arm had drug administration alone, while the other two arms had IVC with MDA. The latter two arms include (i) MDA + EPS (expanded polystyrene beads applied in stagnant water bodies) and (ii) MDA + EPS + PIC (pyrethroid-impregnated curtains were provided additionally to each household). The IVC was implemented by the community and was monitored by village volunteers. After 3 years of IVC + MDA, parameters of filarial infection like microfilaraemia, antigenaemia and transmission indices were found to decline in all the groups. Vector density showed a remarkable and significant reduction in both the IVC arms. During post-IVC period, transmission was nil in these arms. Higher reduction in vector density was observed in MDA + EPS + PIC arm as compared to arm without PIC. The paper discusses the key elements of IVC implementation through community mobilization in an area endemic to bancroftian filariasis.
This community-based approach was supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation through RCC-ELF grant. The study received approval from the institutional ethical committee. The authors express their thanks to the Director General, ICMR and to the staff of the Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Tamil Nadu State, for their valuable cooperation. The village community of Tirukoilur revenue Block is also gratefully acknowledged for their cooperation and support. Acknowledgement is expressed to all the project staff of CRME Field Station at Tirukoilur, without whose support, this trial could not have been completed.
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