Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF)
A 50-year-old man presented with a history of numbness in both lower limbs and associated urine and fecal incontinence for 6 months. There was no history of trauma. MRI scan showed multiple flow voids in the lower cervical and dorsal spine along with cord edema in the lower thoracic cord suggestive of a vascular malformation (Fig. 80.1). Spinal angiography demonstrated spinal dural AV fistula at L4–L5 levels with arterial feeders from the lateral sacral branches (Fig. 80.2).