Advertisement

SiPM-Based Camera Design and Development for the Image Air Cherenkov Telescope of LHAASO

  • S. S. Zhang
  • B. Y. Bi
  • C. Wang
  • Z. Cao
  • L. Q. Yin
  • T. Montaruli
  • D. della Volpe
  • M. Heller
  • for the LHAASO Collaboration
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Physics book series (SPPHY, volume 212)

Abstract

Wide Field of View Cherenkov Telescope Array (WFCTA) has 16 image air Cherenkov telescopes and is one of the main detectors of LHAASO. The main scientific goal of WFCTA is to measure the ultra-high energy cosmic ray energy spectrum and composition from 30 TeV to a couple of EeV. Each Cherenkov telescope has an array of 32 \(\times \) 32 SiPM and covers a field of view \(14^{\circ }\times 16^{\circ }\) with a pixel size of \(0.5^{\circ }\). Because SiPM cannot be aging under strong light exposure, SiPM-based camera can be operated in the moon night and achieve a longer duty cycle than PMT-based camera, e.g. the duty cycle of SiPM-based camera is about 30%, while the PMT-based camera is about 10%. A square SiPM with photosensitive area of 15 mm \(\times \) 15 mm and Geiger-APD size of 25 \(\upmu \)m is used in the SiPM-based camera. Each SiPM has 360,000 APDs, which can meet the required dynamic range from 10 photoelectrons (pes) to 32000 pes of WFCTA. SiPM has higher photon detection efficiency than quantum efficiency \(\times \) collection efficiency of PMT, so SiPM-based camera has the same signal to noise ratio with PMT-based camera, although SiPM has higher dark count rate.

Keywords

SiPM WFCTA Image air Cherenkov telescope SiPM-based camera 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is supported in China by the Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS. Projects No. 11475190 and No. 11675204 of NSFC also provide support to this study.

References

  1. 1.
    Anderhub, H., et al.: Design and operation of FACT - the first G-APD Cherenkov telescope. JINST 8 (2013). P06008 arXiv:1304.1710
  2. 2.
    Schioppa, E.J., et al.: The SST-1M camera for the Cherenkov telescope array. arXiv:1508.06453v1 [astro-ph.IM] (2015)
  3. 3.
    Cao, Z., et al.: Chin. Phys. C 34, 249 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    He, H.H., et al.: LHAASO project: detector design and prototype. In: 31st ICRC, LODZ (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhang, S.S., et al.: Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 629, 57 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bi, B.Y., et al.: Silicon photomultiplier performance study and readout design for the wide field of view Cherenkov telescope array of LHAASO. In: Proceedings of Technology and Instrumentation in Particle Physics (2017)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Benn, C.R., Ellison, S.L.: New Astron. Rev. 42, 503 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. S. Zhang
    • 1
  • B. Y. Bi
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. Wang
    • 1
  • Z. Cao
    • 1
  • L. Q. Yin
    • 1
    • 2
  • T. Montaruli
    • 3
  • D. della Volpe
    • 3
  • M. Heller
    • 3
  • for the LHAASO Collaboration
  1. 1.Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.University of GenevaGenevaSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations