An Overview on the Application of Ligninolytic Microorganisms and Enzymes for Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass
Generation of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass has received much interest in recent times to achieve an alternative energy source over conventional fossil fuels. Pretreatment is a vital step in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels, which is required to break down the lignocellulosic network of biomass. It is necessarily applied prior to the production of bioalcohols (bioethanol and biobutanol), biohydrogen, and biogas through fermentation. Delignification is the main objective of pretreatment that releases polysaccharides from the lignocellulosic matrix and increases enzymatic digestibility of cellulose. Although pretreatment can be done by using different physical, chemical, physicochemical, and biological methods, the latter is considered more promising as it is less expensive and eco-friendly, generates low or no inhibitors, and consumes relatively lower energy (steam and electricity). Many naturally occurring ligninolytic microorganisms and enzymes are used for delignification of biomass biologically. The aim of this chapter is to present an overview of different ligninolytic microorganisms (fungi and bacteria) and their enzymes for biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.
KeywordsBiofuels Biological pretreatment Lignocellulosic biomass Delignification Ligninolytic enzymes White rot fungi Bacterial pretreatment Laccase Fungal pretreatment
This work was supported by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No.: 2017M621657), NSFC (Grant No.: 31571806), and Six Talent Peaks in Jiangsu Province (SWYY-018).
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