Chronic Liver Disease: Diagnosis and Management of Complications

  • Srinivasan Palaniappan
  • Karthick Sundaram
  • Naresh Shanmugam


Diseases of liver parenchyma or biliary tree ultimately lead to progressive fibrosis of liver resulting in cirrhosis. Disruption of the liver architecture by fibrous strands that connect between portal tracts or between portal tract and central venule resulting in nodule formation is defined as cirrhosis. The speed and severity of progression of cirrhosis depend upon the etiology of liver disease. Cirrhosis leads to several complications, some of which are outlined in Fig. 3.1.

Further Reading

  1. 1.
  2. 2.
    Shanmugam NP, Karthikeyan P, Dhawan A. Chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and complications: part 2: hepatic encephalopathy and other systemic effects. In: Murray KF, Horslen S, editors. Diseases of liver in children. New York: Springer; 2014. p. 497–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Trifan A, Chiriac S, Stanciu C. Update on adrenal insufficiency in patients with liver cirrhosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19(4):445–56. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Srinivasan Palaniappan
    • 1
  • Karthick Sundaram
    • 2
  • Naresh Shanmugam
    • 3
  1. 1.Royal Manchester Children’s HospitalManchesterUK
  2. 2.Gleneagles Global Health CityChennaiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Paediatric Liver, GI and NutritionInstitute of Advanced Paediatrics, Dr. Rela Institute and Medical CentreChennaiIndia

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