Literature Review and Experiential Observations

  • Amar Patnaik


Patnaik explores and reviews literature from five broad academic disciplines: organizational theory, sociology, psychology, economics and political science. The chapter is divided into three parts—first, basic definitions of institutions in various schools of thought and academic disciplines, why and how they perpetuate, and a copious description of various institutional arrangements in an Indian village. The second part examines various power relationships and dynamics in Indian villages, while the third part dwells on institutional theory and institutional change. Identifying power, trust, values, symbols, myths and belief systems among the most significant variables in the rural ecosystem, Patnaik analyses institutional change through the lens of ‘power’ and ‘power asymmetry’ in Indian villages drawing on literature from authors like Di Maggio, Dorado, Battilana, Srinivas and Dube.


  1. Acemoglu, D. (2005). Unbundling institutions. Journal of Political Economy, 113(5), 949–995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler, A. (1938). Social interest: A challenge to mankind (J. Linton & R. Vaughan, Trans.). London: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
  3. Aoki, M. (1988). Information, incentives, and bargaining in the Japanese economy. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arthur, M. B. (1994). The boundaryless career: A new perspective for organizational inquiry. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 15, 295–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bachenheimer, R. (1960). Elements of leadership in Andhra village. In R. L. Park & A. I. Tinker (Eds.), Leadership and political institutions in India. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bailey, F. G. (1957). Caste and the economic frontier: A village in highland Orissa. Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Baily, F. G. (Ed.). (1969). Pro-political system. In M. J. Swartz (Ed.), Local level politics. London: University of London Press.Google Scholar
  8. Barley, S. R., & Tolbert, P. (1997). Institutionalization and structuration: Studying the links between action and institution. Organization Studies, 18, 93–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Battilana, J. (2006). Agency and institutions: The enabling role of individuals’ social position. Organization, 13(5), 653–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Battilana, J., & Leca, B. (2008). The role of resources in institutional entrepreneurship: Insights for an approach to strategic management combining agency and institutions. In L. A. Costanzo & R. B. MacKay (Eds.), Handbook of research on strategy and foresight. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Publishers.Google Scholar
  11. Beals, A. (1960). Interplay among factors of change in a Mysore village. In M. Marriott (Ed.), Village India. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  12. Berger, P., & Luckman, T. (1966). The social construction of reality: A treatise in the sociology of knowledge. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  13. Beteille, A. (1966). Caste, class and power: Changing patterns of stratification in a Tanjore village. Bombay: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bijker, W. E. (1987). The social construction of technological systems.
  15. Bijker, W. E., & Pinch, T. J. (1980). The social construction of technological systems: New direction in the sociology & history of technologies. MIT Press: Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  16. Bingen, J. (2000). Institutions and sustainable livelihoods. East Lansing: Michigan State University.Google Scholar
  17. Blom-Hansen, J. (1997). A ‘new institutional’ perspective on policy networks. Public Administration, 75(Winter), 669–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bowring, M. A. (2000). De/constructing theory: A look at the institutional theory that positivism built. Journal of Management Inquiry, 9, 258–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boxenbaum, E., & Battilana, J. (2005). Importation as innovation: Transposing managerial practices across fields. Strategic Organization, 3(4), 355–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Buchanan, J. M., & Tullock, G. (1962). The calculus of consent (Vol. 3). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carter, A. (1974). Elite politics in rural India, political stratification & alliances in Western Maharashtra. Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chakraborty, S. R. (1974). Pressure groups in West Bengal. The Indian Journal of Political Science, 35(2), 172–184.Google Scholar
  23. Chambers, R. (1997). Whose reality counts? Putting the first last. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chauhan, B. R. (1967). Phases in village power structure and leadership in Rajasthan. In L. P. Vidyarthi (Ed.), Leadership in India. New Delhi: Asia Publishing House.Google Scholar
  25. Chauhan, B. R. (1968). A Rajasthan village. New Delhi: Vir Publishing House.Google Scholar
  26. Chauhan, S. K. (1980). Caste, status and power. New Delhi: Classical Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  27. Child, J., Lu, Y., & Tsai, T. (2007). Institutional entrepreneurship in building an environmental protection system for the people’s republic of China. Organization Studies, 28(7), 1013–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cohn, B. S. (1969). Changing status of a depressed caste. In A. R. Desai (Ed.), Journal of Rural Sociology in India. Bombay: Popular Prakash.Google Scholar
  29. Dacin, T. M., Goodstein, J., & Scott, W. R. (2002). Institutional theory and institutional change: Introduction to the special research forum. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1), 45–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dahl, R. A. (1957). The concept of power. Behavioural Science, 2, 201–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dahl, R. A. (1961). Modern political analysis. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.Google Scholar
  32. Dahl, R. A. (1968). Power. In W. A. Darity (Ed.), International encyclopaedia of the social sciences (pp. 405–415). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  33. David, P. A. (1985). Clio and the economics of QWERTY. The American Economic Review, 75(2), 332–337.Google Scholar
  34. Demerath, N. J., & Maxwell, G. (1976). Sociology: Perspectives and applications. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  35. Dhillon, H. S. (1955). Leadership and groups in a South Indian village. Planning Commission of India.Google Scholar
  36. DiMaggio, P. J. (1988). Interest and agency in institutional theory. In L. G. Zucker (Ed.), Institutional patterns and organizations (pp. 3–22). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  37. DiMaggio, P. (2012). Constructing an organizational field as a professional project: The case of US art museums. In Institutional theory in organizationa studies. Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  38. DiMaggio, P. J., & Powell, W. W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48(2), 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. DiMaggio, P. J., & Powel, W. W. (1991). Introduction. In W. W. Powell & P. J. DiMaggio (Eds.), The new institutionalism in organizational analysis (pp. 1–38). Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Djankov, S., Porta, R. L., Lopez-de-Silanes, F., & Shleifer, Andrei. (2008). The law and economics of self-dealing. Journal of Financial Economics, 88(3), 430–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dorado, S. (2005). Institutional entrepreneurship, partaking, and convening. Organization Studies, 26(3), 383–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dowding, K. (1996). Power (Concepts in the social sciences). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  43. Dowding, K. (2011). Encyclopedia of power. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dube, S. C. (1955). Indian village. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  45. Dube, S. C. (1958). India’s changing villages. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  46. Dube, S. C. (1968). Caste dominan and factionalism. Contribution to Indian Sociology (New Series, No. 66).Google Scholar
  47. Durand, R., & McGuire, J. (2005). Legitimating agencies in the face of selection: The case of AACSB. Organization Studies, 26(2), 165–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Epstein, T. S. (1961). Economic development and social change. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Farashahi, M., Hafsi, T., & Molz, R. (2005). Institutionalized norms of conducting research and social realities: A research synthesis of empirical works from 1983 to 2002. International Journal of Management Reviews, 7(1), 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fligstein, N. (1997). Social skill and institutional theory. American Behavioral Scientist, 40(4), 397–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fligstein, N. (2001). Social skills and the theory of fields. Sociological Theory, 19(2), 105–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fligstein, N., & Mara-Drita, I. (1996). How to make a market: Reflections on the attempt to create a single market in the European Union. American Journal of Sociology, 102(1), 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Follett, M. P. (1940). Dynamic administration: The collected papers of Mary Parker Follett (E. M. Fox & L. Urwick, Eds.). London: Pitman Publishing.Google Scholar
  54. Foucault, M. (1980). Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings 1972–1977 (C. Gordon, Ed.). Brighton: Harvester Press.Google Scholar
  55. Foucault, M. (1986). Disciplinary power and subjection. In S. Lukes (Ed.), Power (pp. 229–241). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  56. Fountain, J. (2001). Building the virtual state: Information technology and institutional change. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  57. Frederickson, H. G. (1999). The repositioning of American public administration. PS: Political Science and Politics, 32(4), 701–711.Google Scholar
  58. French, J. R. P., & Raven, B. (1959). The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  59. Friedland, R., & Alford, R. R. (1991). Bringing society back in: Symbols, practices, and institutional contradictions. In W. W. Powell & P. J. DiMaggio (Eds.), The new institutionalism in organizational analysis (pp. 232–263). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  60. Galbraith, J. K. (1983). The anatomy of power. Challenge, 26(3), 26–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Garfinkel, H. (1967). Studies in ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  62. Garud, R., Hardy, C., & Maguire, S. (2007). Institutional entrepreneurship as embedded agency: An introduction to the special issue. Organization Studies, 28(7), 957–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Garud, R., Jain, S., & Kumaraswamy, A. (2002). Institutional entrepreneurship in the sponsorship of common technological standards: The case of Sun Microsystems and Java. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1), 196–214.Google Scholar
  64. Gaventa, J. (2007). 12 levels, spaces and forms of power. In F. Berenskoetter & M. J. Williams (Eds.), Power in world politics (pp. 204–224). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. Giddens, A. (1984). The constitution of society. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  66. Gramsci, A. (1971). Selection from the prison notebooks (Q. Hoax & G. N. Smith, Trans. and Eds.) (pp. 1–25, 210–215). New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
  67. Greenwood, R., & Suddaby, R. (2006). Institutional entrepreneurship in mature fields: The big five accounting firms. Academy of Management Journal, 49(1), 27–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Greenwood, R., Suddaby, R., & Hinings, C. R. (2002). Theorizing change: The role of professional associations in the transformation of institutionalized fields. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1), 58–80.Google Scholar
  69. Habermas, J. (1984). Theory of communicative action, volume one: Reason and the rationalization of society (T. A. McCarthy, Trans.). Boston, MA: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  70. Habermas, J. (1987). Theory of communicative action, volume two: Life, world and system—A critique of functionalist reason (T. A. McCarthy, Trans.). Boston, MA: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  71. Hall, P. A., & Soskice, D. (2001). Varieties of capitalism: The institutional foundations of comparative advantages. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Hall, P., & Taylor, R. (1996). Political science and the three new institutionalisms. Political Studies, 44, 936–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hamilton, G. G., & Biggart, N. W. (1985). Why people obey: Theoretical observations on power and obedience in complex organizations. Sociological Perspectives, 28(1), 3–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hardy, C., & Maguire, S. (2008). Institutional entrepreneurship. In R. Greenwood, C. Oliver, R. Suddaby, & K. Shalin-Anderson (Eds.), Handbook of organizational institutionalism. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
  75. Harper, L. G., & Edward, B. (1960). Political organization & leadership in a Karnataka village. In R. L. Park & A. I. Tinker (Eds.), Leadership and political institutions in India. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Haunschild, P., & Miner, A. S. (1997). Modes of inter-organizational imitation: The effects of outcome salience and uncertainty. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(3), 472–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hira, A., & Hira, R. (2000). The new institutionalism: Contradictory notions of change. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 59(2), 267–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hitchcock, J. T. (1959). Leadership in a North Indian village—Two case studies. In R. L. Park & A. I. Tinker (Eds.), Leadership and political institutions in India. Princeton, NJ: Princeton of University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Hofstede, G. (1983). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Administrative Science Quarterly (Johnson Graduate School of Management, Cornell University), 28(4), 625–629.Google Scholar
  80. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  81. Holm, P. (1995). The dynamics of institutionalization: Transformation processes in Norwegian fisheries. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40(3), 398–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Huges, E. C. (1936). The ecological aspect of institutions. American Sociological Review, 1, 180–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Hunter, F. (1953). Community power structure. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina press.Google Scholar
  84. Hwang, H., & Powell, W. W. (2005). Institutions and entrepreneurship. In S. A. Alvarez, R. Agarwal, & O. Sorenson (Eds.), Handbook of entrepreneurship research (pp. 179–210). Dordrecht: Kluwer Publishers.Google Scholar
  85. Jepperson, R. L. (1991). Institutions, institutional effects, and institutionalism. In P. J. DiMaggio & W. W. Powell (Eds.), The new institutionalism in organizational analysis (pp. 143–163). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  86. Jha, S. (1972). Political elites in Bihar. Bombay: Vora and Co., Publishers.Google Scholar
  87. Johannes, J. (2003). Institutions and development: A critical review (OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 210).Google Scholar
  88. Jütting, J. P. (2003). Institutions and development.Google Scholar
  89. Keohane, R. O. (1988). International institutions: Two approaches. International Studies Quarterly, 32(4), 379–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Khan, F., Munir, K., & Willmott, H. (2007). A dark side of institutional entrepreneurship: Soccer balls. Child Labor and Postcolonial Impoverishment, Organization Studies, 28(7), 1055–1077.Google Scholar
  91. Kim, S. C. (2005). Nested institutions and the retardation of the adaptive process. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 22(6), 483–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Koch, B. J. (2004). Socialism with Chinese characteristics: The interaction of institutional logics and organizational forms (part of doctoral dissertation).Google Scholar
  93. Krasner, S. D. (1976). State power and the structure of international trade. World Politics: A Quarterly Journal of International Relations, 28, 317–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Krasner, S. D. (1982). Structural causes and regime consequences: Regimes as intervening variables. International Organization, 36(2), 185–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Krishna, K. (1967). Leadership in panchayat elections of Uttar Pradesh. In L. P. Vidyarthi (Ed.), Leadership in India. New Delhi: Asia Publishing House.Google Scholar
  96. Kuhn, T. S. (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  97. Lawrence, T. B., & Phillips, N. (2004). From Moby Dick to Free Willy: Macro-cultural discourse and institutional entrepreneurship in emerging institutional fields. Organization, 11(5), 689–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lawrence, T. B., Hardy, C., & Phillips, N. (2002). Institutional effects of inter-organizational collaboration: The emergence of proto-institutions. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1), 281–290.Google Scholar
  99. Leblebici, H., Salancik, G. R., Copay, A., & King, T. (1991). Institutional change and the transformation of interorganizational fields: An organizational history of the U.S. radio broadcasting industry. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(3), 333–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Levi, M. (1990). A logic of institutional change. In K. S. Cook & M. Levi (Eds.), The limits of rationality (pp. 401–418). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  101. Levy, D. L., & Egan, D. (2003). A neo-Gramscian approach to corporate political strategy: Conflict and accommodation in the climate change negotiations. Journal of Management Studies, 40(4), 803–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Levy, D. L., & Scully, M. (2007). The institutional entrepreneur as modern prince: The strategic face of power in contested fields. Organization Studies, 28(7), 971–991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lewis, O. (1955). Village life in Northern India. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  104. Lounsbury, M., & Crumley, E. T. (2007). New practice creation: An institutional perspective on innovation. Organization Studies, 28(7), 993–1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lukes, S. (1974). Power: A radical view. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Maguire, S., & Hardy, C. (2006). The emergence of new global institutions: A discursive perspective. Organization Studies, 27(1), 7–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Maguire, S., Hardy, C., & Lawrence, T. B. (2004). Institutional entrepreneurship in emerging fields: HIV/AIDS treatment advocacy in Canada. Academy of Management Journal, 47(5), 657–679.Google Scholar
  108. Majumdar, R. C. (1974). History of mediaeval Bengal. G. Bharadwaj.Google Scholar
  109. March, J. G., & Olsen, J. P. (1984). The new institutionalism: Organizational factors in political life. American Political Science Review, 78(3), 734–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. March, J. G., & Olsen, J. P. (1989). Rediscovering institutions: The organizational basis of politics. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  111. Mathur, K. S. (1967). Leadership in rural India: A case study. In L. P. Vidyarthi (Ed.), Leadership in India. New Delhi: Asia Publishing House.Google Scholar
  112. Mayer, A. C. (1963). Some political implications of community development in India. European Journal of Sociology, 4(1), 78–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. McCormack, W. C. (1975). Restudy in economic anthropology. Reviews in Anthropology, 2(1), 104–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Meyer, J., & Rowan, B. (1977). Institutionalized organizations: Formal structures as myth and ceremony. American Journal of Sociology, 83, 340–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Michels, R. (1949). Political parties. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  116. Miller, D. F. (1965). Factions in Indian village politics. Pacific Affairs, 38(1), 17–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Mizruchi, M. S., & Fein, L. C. (1999). The social construction of organizational knowledge: A study of the uses of coercive, mimetic, and normative isomorphism. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(4), 653–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Moe, T. M. (1980). The organization of interests. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  119. Moe, T. M. (1984). The new economics of organization. American Journal of Political Science, 28, 739–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Munir, K., & Phillips, N. (2005). The birth of the “kodak moment”: Institutional entrepreneurship and the adoption of new technologies. Organization Studies, 26(11), 1665–1687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Narain, I. (1963). Democratic decentralization: The idea, the image and the reality. Indian Journal of Public Administration, IX(1), 11–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Nelson, R. R., & Winter, S. G. (1982). An evolutionary theory of economic change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  123. Nicholas, R. W. (1969). Rural resources and political activity. In M. J. Swartz (Ed.), Local level politics. London: University of London Press.Google Scholar
  124. Nietzsche, F. (1968). The will to power (W. Kaufmann & R. J. Hollingdale, Trans.). New York, NY: Vintage.Google Scholar
  125. North, D. C. (1986). The new institutional economics. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE)/Zeitschrift für die gesamte Staatswissenschaft, 142(1), 230–237.Google Scholar
  126. North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. North, D. C. (1991). Institutions. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5(1), 97–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. North, D. C. (1992). Institutions and economic theory. The American Economist, 36(1), 3–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. North, D. C. (1993). Institutions and credible commitment. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE)/Zeitschrift für die gesamte Staatswissenschaft, 149(1), 11–23.Google Scholar
  130. Oliver, C. (1992). The antecedents of deinstitutionalization. Organization Studies, 13, 563–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Oommen, T. K. (1970). Rural community power structure in India. Social Forces, 49(2), 226–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Orlikowski, W. J. (1992). The duality of technology: Rethinking the concept of technology in organizations. Organization Science, 3(3), 398–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Orlikowski, W. J. (2000). Using technology and constituting structures: A practice lens for studying technology in organizations. Organization Science, 11(4), 404–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Orlikowski, W. J., & Baroudi, J. J. (1991). Studying information technology in organizations: Research approaches and assumptions. Information Systems Research, 2(1), 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Ostrom, E. (1986). An agenda for the study of institutions. Public Choice, 48(1), 3–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the commons: The evolution of institutions for collective action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. O’Toole, L. J. (1997). Treating networks seriously: Practical and research-based agendas in public administration. Public Administration Review, 57(1), 45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Paradis, L. F., & Cummings, S. B. (1986). The evolution of hospicel in America: Toward organisational homogeneity. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 27, 370–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Parsons, T. (1937). The structure of social action. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  140. Parsons, T. (1951). The social system. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  141. Parvathamnia, C. (1968). Landholding pattern and power relations in Mysore village. Sociological Bulletin, XVI(1), 164–185.Google Scholar
  142. Perkmann, M., & Spicer, A. (2007). Healing the scars of history: Projects, skills and field strategy in institutional entrepreneurship. Organization Studies, 28(7), 1101–1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. R. (1978). The external control of organizations. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  144. Phillips, N., Lawrence, T. B., & Hardy, C. (2004). Discourse and institutions. Academy of Management Review, 29(4), 635–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Pierson, P. (2000). Increasing returns, path dependence and the study of politics. American Political Science Review, 94(2), 251–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Polsby, N. (1963). Community power and political theory. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  147. Powell, W. W., & Dimaggio, P. J. (1991). The new institutionalism in organizational analysis.Google Scholar
  148. Putnam, R. D. (1995). Tuning in, tuning out: The strange disappearance of social capital in America. PS: Political Science & Politics, 28(4), 664–684.Google Scholar
  149. Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: America’s declining social capital. In Culture and politics (pp. 223–234). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  150. Rangnathan. (1967). Rural leadership, old and new. In L. E Vidyarthi (Ed.), Leadership in India. Bombay: Asia Publishing House.Google Scholar
  151. Rao, K. R. (1968). Rural leadership and conflict: Study of an Andhra village. Economic and Political Weekly, 3(17), 674–677.Google Scholar
  152. Rao, H. (1994). The social construction of reputation: Certification contests, legitimation, and the survival of organizations in the American automobile industry: 1895–1912. Strategic Management Journal, 15(S1), 29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Rao, H., Morrill, C., & Zald, M. N. (2000). Power plays: How social movements and collective action create new organizational forms. Research in Organizational Behavior, 22, 239–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Reddy, G. R. (1967, December). Social composition of Panchayati Raj: Background of political executive in Andhra. Economic and Political Weekly, 2(50), 2211–2214.Google Scholar
  155. Retzlaff, R. A. (1962). Village government in India. New Delhi: Asia Publishing House.Google Scholar
  156. Roberts, P. W., & Greenwood, R. (1997). Integrating transaction cost and institutional theories: Toward a constrained-efficiency framework for understanding organizational design adoption. The Academy of Management Review, 22(2), 346–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Robertson, I. (2012). The winner effect: How power affects your brain. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  158. Rodrik, D. (2008). Second-best institutions (National Bureau of Economic Research No. w14050).Google Scholar
  159. Rogowski, R. (1989). Commerce and coalitions: How trade affects domestic political alignments. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  160. Rosenau, J. N. (1990). Turbulence in world politics: A theory of change and continuity (p. 117). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  161. Sachchidananda, & Lai, A. K. (1973). Power resources of village leadership: A case study. Journal of Social and Economic Studies, 1(1).Google Scholar
  162. Saran, P. (1978). Rural leadership in the context of India’s modernization. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.Google Scholar
  163. Sarkar, R. M. (1971). Faction situation in a Bengal village. The Eastern Anthropologist, XXIV(3), 297.Google Scholar
  164. Schmoller, G. (1884). Studien über die wirtschaftliche Politik Friedrichs des Grossen. In W. J. Ashley (Trans., 1897), The Mercantile system and its historical significance (2nd ed., 1910). New York: Macmillan. online edition.Google Scholar
  165. Schmoller, G. (1894). The idea of justice in political economy. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 4, 697–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Scott, W. R. (1995). Institutions and organizations (1st ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  167. Scott, W. R. (2001). Institutions and organizations (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  168. Scott, W. R. (2003). Institutional carriers: Reviewing modes of transporting ideas over time and space and considering their consequences. Industrial and Corporate Change, 12(4), 879–894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Scott, W. R (2004). Institutional theory. In G. Ritzer (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social theory (pp 408–414). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  170. Scott, W. R. (2008). Institutions and organizations (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  171. Selznick, P. (1948). Foundations of the theory of organization. American Sociological Review, 13(1), 25–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Selznick, P. (1996). Institutionalism “old” and “new”. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 270–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Sen, L. K. (1969). Opinion leadership in India. Hyderabad: National Institute of Community Development.Google Scholar
  174. Seo, M., & Douglas Creed, W. E. (2002). Institutional contradictions, praxis and institutional change: A dialectical perspective. Academy of Management Review, 27(2), 222–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Sethi, J. D. (1978). Gandhi today. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.Google Scholar
  176. Sewell, W. H. (1992). A theory of structure: Duality, agency, and transformation. American Journal of Sociology, 98(1), 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Sharma, K. L. (1978). Power elite in rural India: Some questions and clarifications. Sociological Bulletin, 25(1), 45–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Sharma, S. S. (1979). Rural elite in India. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers.Google Scholar
  179. Shukla, N. K. (1976). The social structure of an Indian village. New Delhi: Coso Publications.Google Scholar
  180. Simmel, G. (1955). A contribution to the sociology of religion. American Journal of Sociology, 60(S6), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Simmel, G. (2011). Georg Simmel on individuality and social forms. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  182. Simon, H. A. (1947). Administrative behavior: A study of decision-making processes in administrative organization. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  183. Singh, B. (1961). Next step in village India—A study of land reforms & group dynamics. Bombay: Asia Publishing House.Google Scholar
  184. Singh, H. (1968). Village leadership. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers.Google Scholar
  185. Singh, Y. (1969a). Social structure and village panchayat—A case study on class relations in rural political process. In A. R. Desai (Ed.), Rural sociology in India. Bombay: Popular Prakashan.Google Scholar
  186. Singh, Y. (1969b). The changing power structure of village community—A case study of six villages in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. In A. R. Desai (Ed.), Rural sociology in India. Bombay: Popular Prakashan.Google Scholar
  187. Sirsikar, V. M. (1966, November 19). Political role of Panchayat Raj. Economic and Political Weekly, 1, 581–584.Google Scholar
  188. Srinivas, M. N. (1955). India’s villages. New Delhi: Asia Publishing House.Google Scholar
  189. Srinivas, M. N. (1980). India: Social structure. New Delhi: Hindustan Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
  190. Streeck, W. (2001). Introduction: Explorations into the origins of non-liberal capitalism in Germany and Japan. In W. Streeck & K. Yamamura (Eds.), The origins of non-liberal capitalism: Germany and Japan in comparison (pp. 1–38). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  191. Suchman, M. C. (1995). Managing legitimacy: Strategic and institutional approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 571–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Suddaby, R., & Greenwood, R. (2005). Rhetorical strategies of legitimacy. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50(1), 35–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Thelen, K. (1999). Historical institutionalism in comparative politics. Annual Review of Political Science, 2(1), 369–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Thompson, J. D. (1967). Organizations in action: Social science bases of administrative theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  195. Thornton, P. H., & Ocasio, W. (1999). Institutional logics and the historical contingency of power in organizations: Executive succession in the higher education publishing industry, 1958–1990. American Journal of Sociology, 105, 801–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Tolbert, P. S., & Zucker, L. G. (1994). Institutional analyses of organizations: Legitimate but not institutionalized. ISSR Working Papers in the Social Sciences, 1994–95, 6(5), 1–32.Google Scholar
  197. Veblen, T. (1919). The vested interests and the common man. New York: B. W. Huebsch.Google Scholar
  198. Virmani, A. (2005). Institution, governance & policy reforms: A framework for analysis. Economic and Political Weekly, 40(22), 2341–2350.Google Scholar
  199. Wang, P., & Swanson, E. B. (2007). Launching professional services automation: Institutional entrepreneurship for information technology innovations. Information and Organization, 17, 59–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organisation (A. M. Henderson & T. Parsons, Trans.). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  201. Weber, M. (1948). From Max Weber: Essays in social theory. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  202. Weber, M. (1978). Economy and society: An outline of interpretive sociology (2 Vols., G. Roth & C. Wittich, Eds.). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  203. Weber, M. (1986). Domination by economic power and authority. In S. Lukes (Ed.), Power (pp. 28–36). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  204. Weick, K. E. (1995). Sense making in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  205. Wijen, F., & Ansari, S. (2007). Overcoming inaction through collective institutional entrepreneurship: Insights from regime theory. Organization Studies, 28(7), 1079–1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Williamson, O. E. (1985). The economic institutions of capitalism: Firms, markets, relational contracting. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  207. Williamson, O. E. (1993). Calculativeness, trust, and economic organization. The Journal of Law and Economics, 36(1) (Part 2), 453–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Williamson, O. E. (2000). The new institutional economics: Taking stock, looking ahead. Journal of Economic Literature, 38(3), 595–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Witt, M. A., & Lewin, A. Y. (2004). Dynamics of institutional change: Institutional stickiness and the logic of individual action (Euro-Asia Centre Working Paper Series).
  210. Zilber, T. B. (2002). Institutionalization as an interplay between actions, meanings and actors: The case of a rape crisis center in Israel. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1), 234–254.Google Scholar
  211. Zilber, T. B. (2007). Stories and the discursive dynamics of institutional entrepreneurship: The case of Israeli high-tech after the bubble. Organization Studies, 28(7), 1035–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Zucker, L. G. (1977). The role of institutionalization in cultural persistence. American Sociological Review, 42, 726–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Zucker, L. G. (1983). Organizations as institutions. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  214. Zucker, L. G. (1991). Postscript: Micro foundations of institutional thought. In W. W. Powell & P. J. DiMaggio (Eds.), The new institutionalism in organizational analysis (pp. 103–107). Chicago: University of Chicago.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amar Patnaik
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Government and Public AffairsXavier UniversityBhubaneswarIndia

Personalised recommendations