Advertisement

Arsenic Toxicity: A South Asian Perspective

  • Sahar Iftikhar
  • Zeeshan Ali
  • Duaa Ahmad Khan
  • Najam-us-Sahar Sadaf Zaidi
  • Alvina Gul
  • Mustafeez Mujtaba BabarEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Arsenic (As) toxicity has become one of the most significant abiotic threats to agriculture and human health. Owing to various natural and anthropogenic activities, the circulation of As among various reservoirs has increased over the past several decades. Though present throughout the world, South Asian region is particularly affected by it. A major portion of the people living in the region is dependent upon agriculture for their livelihood, and they utilize untreated water for dietary consumption. Moreover, the ability of As to accumulate in the plant body increases the chances of the urban and rural populations to be exposed to the metalloid. The metalloid uses a number of molecular mechanisms which causes adverse reactions in plants and animals. In order to control the detrimental effects of As, effective interventional strategies need to devised and implemented. Various physical, chemical, and biological processes can be employed for the purpose. This chapter reviews the geographical patterns of As toxicity in South Asia. The adverse aspects of As toxicity have then been provided followed by the proposed interventional strategies that can be employed for decreasing the As-associated toxicity in South Asia.

Keywords

Arsenic toxicity South Asia Geographical distribution Arsenicosis Interventional strategies 

Abbreviations

ACR

Arsenate reductase

AMF

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

As

Arsenic

ATF

Activating transcription factor 6

CHO

Chinese hamster ovary

CKD

Chronic kidney disease

CO2

Carbon dioxide

DMA

Dimethylarsinic acid

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

EPA

US Environmental Protection Agency

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization

FTCD

Forminidoyl transferase cyclodeaminase

GLUT

Glucose transporters

GSH

Glutathione

GWAS

Genome-wide association study

IARC

International Agency for Research on Cancer

IRE

Inositol-requiring enzyme

MAO

Trimethylarsine oxide

MCL

Maximum contaminant limit

mg

Milligram

MMA

Monomethylarsonic acid

NAC

N-Acetylcysteine

NAPDH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NIPs

Nodulin26-like intrinsic proteins

P

Phosphorus

PERK

PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RuBisCO

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

SNP

Single nucleotide polymorphism

tHcys

Total homocysteine

UNICEF

United Nations Children’s Fund

UPR

Unfolded protein response

WAT

White adipose tissue

WHO

World Health Organization

Zn

Zinc

μg

Microgram

References

  1. Abdul KSM, Jayasinghe SS, Chandana EP, Jayasumana C, De Silva PMC (2015) Arsenic and human health effects: a review. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 40:828–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abernathy CO, Liu Y-P, Longfellow D, Aposhian HV, Beck B, Fowler B, Goyer R, Menzer R, Rossman T, Thompson C (1999) Arsenic: health effects, mechanisms of actions, and research issues. Environ Health Perspect 107:593–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed ZU, Panaullah GM, Gauch H, McCouch SR, Tyagi W, Kabir MS, Duxbury JM (2011) Genotype and environment effects on rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain arsenic concentration in Bangladesh. Plant Soil 338:367–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahuja S (2008) Arsenic contamination of groundwater: a worldwide problem. In: UNESCO Conference on Water Scarcity, Global Changes, and Groundwater Management Responses. Citeseer, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  5. Alamdar A, Eqani SAMAS, Ali SW, Sohail M, Bhowmik AK, Cincinelli A, Subhani M, Ghaffar B, Ullah R, Huang Q (2016) Human Arsenic exposure via dust across the different ecological zones of Pakistan. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 126:219–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Argos M, Ahsan H, Graziano JH (2012) Arsenic and human health: epidemiologic progress and public health implications. Rev Environ Health 27:191–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Armendariz AL, Talano MA, Travaglia C, Reinoso H, Oller ALW, Agostini E (2016) Arsenic toxicity in soybean seedlings and their attenuation mechanisms. Plant Physiol Biochem 98:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Azam SMGG, Sarker TC, Naz S (2016) Factors affecting the soil arsenic bioavailability, accumulation in rice and risk to human health: a review. Toxicol Mech Methods 26:565–579.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40200-014-0117-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bahadar H, Mostafalou S, Abdollahi M (2014) Growing burden of diabetes in Pakistan and the possible role of arsenic and pesticides. J Diabetes Metab Disord 13:117.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40200-014-0117-y CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Banerjee S, Mahanty A, Mohanty S, Mazumder DG, Cash P, Mohanty BP (2017) Identification of potential biomarkers of hepatotoxicity by plasma proteome analysis of arsenic-exposed carp Labeo rohita. J Hazard Mater 336:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhattacharya P, Samal A, Majumdar J, Santra S (2010) Arsenic contamination in rice, wheat, pulses, and vegetables: a study in an arsenic affected area of West Bengal, India. Water Air Soil Pollut 213:3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brahman KD, Kazi TG, Afridi HI, Baig JA, Arain SS, Talpur FN, Kazi AG, Ali J, Panhwar AH, Arain MB (2016) Exposure of children to arsenic in drinking water in the Tharparkar region of Sindh, Pakistan. Sci Total Environ 544:653–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brammer H (2009) Mitigation of arsenic contamination in irrigated paddy soils in South and South-east Asia. Environ Int 35:856–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brammer H, Ravenscroft P (2009) Arsenic in groundwater: a threat to sustainable agriculture in South and South-east Asia. Environ Int 35:647–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ceja-Galicia ZA, Daniel A, Salazar AM, Pánico P, Ostrosky-Wegman P, Díaz-Villaseñor A (2017) Effects of arsenic on adipocyte metabolism: is arsenic an obesogen? Mol Cell Endocrinol 452:25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chakraborti D, Rahman MM, Ahamed S, Dutta RN, Pati S, Mukherjee SC (2016) Arsenic groundwater contamination and its health effects in Patna district (capital of Bihar) in the middle Ganga plain, India. Chemosphere 152:520–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Clemens S (2006) Toxic metal accumulation, responses to exposure and mechanisms of tolerance in plants. Biochimie 88:1707–1719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Das D, Chatterjee A, Samanta G, Mandal B, Chowdhury TR, Samanta G, Chowdhury PP, Chanda C, Basu G, Lodh D (1994) Report. Arsenic contamination in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India: the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. Analyst 119:168–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dixit G, Singh AP, Kumar A, Singh PK, Kumar S, Dwivedi S, Trivedi PK, Pandey V, Norton GJ, Dhankher OP (2015) Sulfur mediated reduction of arsenic toxicity involves efficient thiol metabolism and the antioxidant defense system in rice. J Hazard Mat 298:241–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. El-Saad AMA, Al-Kahtani MA, Abdel-Moneim AM (2016) N-acetylcysteine and meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid alleviate oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction induced by sodium arsenite in male rats. Drug Des Dev Ther 10:3425.  https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S115339 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Engström KS, Nermell B, Concha G, Strömberg U, Vahter M, Broberg K (2009) Arsenic metabolism is influenced by polymorphisms in genes involved in one-carbon metabolism and reduction reactions. Mutat Res 667:4–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Finnegan PM, Chen W (2012) Arsenic toxicity: the effects on plant metabolism. Front Physiol 3:182.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2012.00182 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Gadgil A, Roy J, Addy S, Das A, Miller S, Dutta A, Deb-Sarkar A (2012) Addressing arsenic poisoning in south Asia. Solutions 5:40–45Google Scholar
  24. Gamble MV, Liu X, Ahsan H, Pilsner JR, Ilievski V, Slavkovich V, Parvez F, Levy D, Factor-Litvak P, Graziano JH (2005) Folate, homocysteine, and arsenic metabolism in arsenic-exposed individuals in Bangladesh. Environ Health Perspect 113:1683.  https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.8084 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Garg N, Singla P (2011) Arsenic toxicity in crop plants: physiological effects and tolerance mechanisms. Environ Chem Lett 9:303–321Google Scholar
  26. Hajduch M, Rakwal R, Agrawal GK, Yonekura M, Pretova A (2001) High-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis separation of proteins from metal-stressed rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves: drastic reductions/fragmentation of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and induction of stress-related proteins. Electrophoresis 22:2824–2831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Haque R, Chaudhary A, Sadaf N (2017) Immunomodulatory role of arsenic in regulatory T cells. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 17:176–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hassan FI, Niaz K, Khan F, Maqbool F, Abdollahi M (2017) The relation between rice consumption, arsenic contamination, and prevalence of diabetes in South Asia. EXCLI J 16:1132.  https://doi.org/10.17179/excli2017-222 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Huang Q, Xi G, Alamdar A, Zhang J, Shen H (2017) Comparative proteomic analysis reveals heart toxicity induced by chronic arsenic exposure in rats. Environ Pollut 229:210–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2004) Some drinking-water disinfectants and contaminants, including arsenic. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 84:1–477Google Scholar
  31. Intarasunanont P, Navasumrit P, Waraprasit S, Chaisatra K, Suk WA, Mahidol C, Ruchirawat M (2012) Effects of arsenic exposure on DNA methylation in cord blood samples from newborn babies and in a human lymphoblast cell line. Environ Health 11:31.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-11-31 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Islam S, Rahman MM, Islam M, Naidu R (2016) Arsenic accumulation in rice: consequences of rice genotypes and management practices to reduce human health risk. Environ Int 96:139–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jain C, Singh R (2012) Technological options for the removal of arsenic with special reference to South East Asia. J Environ Manag 107:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jayasumana C, Gunatilake S, Siribaddana S (2015) Simultaneous exposure to multiple heavy metals and glyphosate may contribute to Sri Lankan agricultural nephropathy. BMC Nephrol 16:103.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12882-015-0109-2 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Juhasz AL, Smith E, Weber J, Rees M, Rofe A, Kuchel T, Sansom L, Naidu R (2006) In vivo assessment of arsenic bioavailability in rice and its significance for human health risk assessment. Environ Health Perspect 114:1826.  https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.9322 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Khairul I, Wang QQ, Jiang YH, Wang C, Naranmandura H (2017) Metabolism, toxicity and anticancer activities of arsenic compounds. Oncotarget 8:23905.  https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.14733 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Kinniburgh D, Smedley P (2001) Arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh. British Geological Survey, LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Kuo C-C, Moon KA, Wang S-L, Silbergeld E, Navas-Acien A (2017) The association of arsenic metabolism with cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes: a systematic review of the epidemiological evidence environmental health perspectives. Environ Health Perspect 125:087001–087001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lee C-G, Alvarez PJJ, Nam A, Park SJ, Do T, Choi US, Lee SH (2017) Arsenic (V) removal using an amine-doped acrylic ion exchange fiber: kinetic, equilibrium, and regeneration studies. J Hazard Mater 325:223–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Li S, Pu H, Wang H (2008) Advances in the study of effects of arsenic on plant photosynthesis. Soil 40:330–366Google Scholar
  41. Li C, Xu J, Li F, Chaudhary SC, Weng Z, Wen J, Elmets CA, Ahsan H, Athar M (2011) Unfolded protein response signaling and MAP kinase pathways underlie pathogenesis of arsenic-induced cutaneous inflammation. Cancer Prev Res 4:2101–2109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lu T-H, Tseng T-J, Su C-C, Tang F-C, Yen C-C, Liu Y-Y, Yang C-Y, Wu C-C, Chen K-L, Hung D-Z (2014) Arsenic induces reactive oxygen species-caused neuronal cell apoptosis through JNK/ERK-mediated mitochondria-dependent and GRP 78/CHOP-regulated pathways. Toxicol Lett 224:130–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Maharjan M, Shrestha RR, Ahmad SA, Watanabe C, Ohtsuka R (2006) Prevalence of arsenicosis in Terai, Nepal. J Health Popul Nutr 24:246–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Maharjan M, Watanabe C, Ahmad SA, Umezaki M, Ohtsuka R (2007) Mutual interaction between nutritional status and chronic arsenic toxicity due to groundwater contamination in an area of Terai, lowland Nepal. J Epidemiol Community Health 61:389–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mazumdar M (2017) Does arsenic increase the risk of neural tube defects among a highly exposed population? A new case–control study in Bangladesh. Birth Defects Res 109:92–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mukherjee A, Sengupta MK, Hossain MA, Ahamed S, Das B, Nayak B, Lodh D, Rahman MM, Chakraborti D (2006) Arsenic contamination in groundwater: a global perspective with emphasis on the Asian scenario. J Health Popul Nutr 24:142–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Muthayya S, Sugimoto JD, Montgomery S, Maberly GF (2014) An overview of global rice production, supply, trade, and consumption. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1324:7–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nordstrom DK (2002) Worldwide occurrences of arsenic in ground water. Science 296:2143–2145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pierce BL, Kibriya MG, Tong L, Jasmine F, Argos M, Roy S, Paul-Brutus R, Rahaman R, Rakibuz-Zaman M, Parvez F (2012) Genome-wide association study identifies chromosome 10q24. 32 variants associated with arsenic metabolism and toxicity phenotypes in Bangladesh. PLoS Genet 8:e1002522.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002522 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Pierce BL, Tong L, Argos M, Jasmine F, Gamble MV, Graziano J, Kibriya MG, Ahsan H (2017) Abstract LB-159: a missense variant in FTCD is associated with arsenic metabolism efficiency and arsenic toxicity in Bangladesh. AACRGoogle Scholar
  51. Rahman MM, Chowdhury UK, Mukherjee SC, Mondal BK, Paul K, Lodh D, Biswas BK, Chanda CR, Basu GK, Saha KC (2001) Chronic arsenic toxicity in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India—a review and commentary. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 39:683–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rahman A, Vahter M, Ekström EC, Rahman M, Golam Mustafa AHM, Wahed MA, Yunus M, Persson LÅ (2007) Association of arsenic exposure during pregnancy with fetal loss and infant death: a cohort study in Bangladesh. Am J Epidemiol 165:1389–1396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rascio N, Navari-Izzo F (2011) Heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants: how and why do they do it? And what makes them so interesting? Plant Sci 180:169–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Redmon JH, Elledge MF, Womack DS, Wickremashinghe R, Wanigasuriya KP, Peiris-John RJ, Lunyera J, Smith K, Raymer JH, Levine KE (2014) Additional perspectives on chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka–lessons learned from the WHO CKDu population prevalence study. BMC Nephrol 15:125.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2369-15-125 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Sambu S, Wilson R (2008) Arsenic in food and water–a brief history. Toxicol Ind Health 24:217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Shakoor MB, Niazi NK, Bibi I, Rahman MM, Naidu R, Dong Z, Shahid M, Arshad M (2015) Unraveling health risk and speciation of arsenic from groundwater in rural areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12:12371–12390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shi H, Shi X, Liu KJ (2004) Oxidative mechanism of arsenic toxicity and carcinogenesis. Mol Cell Biochem 255:67–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shraim AM (2017) Rice is a potential dietary source of not only arsenic but also other toxic elements like lead and chromium. Arab J Chem 10:S3434–S3443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Shrestha RR, Shrestha MP, Upadhyay NP, Pradhan R, Khadka R, Maskey A, Maharjan M, Tuladhar S, Dahal BM, Shrestha K (2003) Groundwater arsenic contamination, its health impact and mitigation program in Nepal. J Environ Sci Health, Part A 38:185–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Singh R, Singh S, Parihar P, Singh VP, Prasad SM (2015) Arsenic contamination, consequences and remediation techniques: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 112:247–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sinha B, Bhattacharyya K (2015) Arsenic toxicity in rice with special reference to speciation in Indian grain and its implication on human health. J Sci Food Agric 95:1435–1444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Smith E, Smith J, Smith L, Biswas T, Correll R, Naidu R (2003) Arsenic in Australian environment: an overview. J Environ Sci Health, Part A 38:223–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Srivastava RK, Li C, Chaudhary SC, Ballestas ME, Elmets CA, Robbins DJ, Matalon S, Deshane JS, Afaq F, Bickers DR (2013) Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 272:879–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tripathi RD, Srivastava S, Mishra S, Singh N, Tuli R, Gupta DK, Maathuis FJ (2007) Arsenic hazards: strategies for tolerance and remediation by plants. Trends Biotechnol 25:158–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tseng C-H (2004) The potential biological mechanisms of arsenic-induced diabetes mellitus. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 197:67–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2006) The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: a report of the surgeon General. Atlanta, GA. In: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and HealthGoogle Scholar
  67. Williams PN, Price AH, Raab A, Hossain SA, Feldmann J, Meharg AA (2005) Variation in arsenic speciation and concentration in paddy rice related to dietary exposure. Environ Sci Technol 39:5531–5540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Yen Y-P, Tsai K-S, Chen Y-W, Huang C-F, Yang R-S, Liu S-H (2012) Arsenic induces apoptosis in myoblasts through a reactive oxygen species-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction pathway. Arch Toxicol 86:923–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sahar Iftikhar
    • 1
  • Zeeshan Ali
    • 1
  • Duaa Ahmad Khan
    • 1
  • Najam-us-Sahar Sadaf Zaidi
    • 2
  • Alvina Gul
    • 2
  • Mustafeez Mujtaba Babar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Shifa College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shifa Tameer-e-Millat UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and TechnologyIslamabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations